no next


Civil Establishment, and Public Institutions in the Territory of New South Wales and its Dependencies.

Seat of Government, Sydney.

CAPTAIN General, Governor in Chief, Vice Admiral, and Commander of the Forces, His Excellency Lachlan Macquarie, Esq. Major General in the Army, and Lieutenant Colonel of the 73d Regiment.

Lieutenant Governor—James Erskine, Esq. Lieutenant Colonel of the 48th Regiment.

Aid-de-Camp to his Excellency the Governor, John Watts, Lieutenant in the 46th Regiment.

Major of Brigade—Henry Colden Antill, Captain in the 73d Regiment.

High Court of Appeals.

Judge—His Excellency the Governor in Chief.

Secretary—John Thomas Campbell, Esq.

  ― 430 ―

Clerk—Michael Robinson, Gent.

Door-keeper—Serjeant Charles Whalan, of the 46th Regiment.

Court of Vice Admiralty.

Judge—John Wylde, Esq. L. L. B.

Registrar—John Thomas Campbell, Esq.

Clerk to the Registrar—Mr. Michael Robinson.

Marshal—William Gore, Esq.

Cryer—Mr. Edward Quin.

The Governor's Court.

The Honorable the Judge Advocate and Premier Judge of this Territory—John Wylde, Esq. L. L. B.

Members—Two Inhabitants of the Territory, specially appointed by Precept from His Excellency the Governor and Commander of the Forces.

Clerk, and Registrar of the Court—Joshua J. Moore, Gent.

Cryer—Mr. Edward Quin.

And it is to be noted, that this Court has cognizance of all pleas, where the amount sued for does not exceed 501. sterling (except such pleas as may arise between party and party, in Van Diemen's Land); and from its decisions there is no appeal.

The Supreme Court.

The Honorable the Judge—Barron Field, Esq.

Members—Two Magistrates of the Territory, appointed by Precept from His Excellency the Governor.

Clerk of the Supreme Court—Mr. John Gurner.

Cryer—Mr. Edward Quin.

  ― 431 ―

Solicitors—Mr. Thomas Wylde; Mr. William Henry Moore; Mr. Frederick Garling; Mr. T. S. Amos.

Secretary's Office.

Secretary—John Thomas Campbell, Esq.

Principal Clerk Michael Robinson, Gent.

Second ditto—Mr. Charles Reid.

Assistant Clerks—Mr. James Sumpter; Mr. Thomas Ryan.

Commissariat Staff.

Deputy Commissary General—David Allan, Esq.

Assistant Commissary General—John Palmer, Esq. Parramatta;

Acting Assistant Commissary General—W. Broughton, Esq. Hobart Town;

Deputy Assistant Commissary General—P. G. Hogan, Esq.

Acting Ditto—Thomas Archer, Esq. Port Dalrymple.

Clerks on the Commissariat Staff—Mr. E. Hobson, Parramatta; Mr. A. Allan, Sydney; Mr. R. Fitzgerald, Windsor; Mr. George Johnston, Sydney.

Principal Assistant Clerk—Mr. T. W. Middleton.

Storekeepers—Mr. W. Scott, Sydney; Mr. S. Larken, Parramatta; Mr. John Tucker, Newcastle; Mr. R. Dry, Port Dalrymple; Mr. John Gowen, Liverpool; Mr. John Rayner, Hobart Town.

Assistant Clerks—Mr. John Flood, Mr. E. J. Yates, Mr. John Rickards, Mr. J. Hankinson, Mr. George Smith, Mr. C. Sommers, Mr. N. Edgworth, Mr. C. Bridges, Mr. W. Todhunter, Mr. Richard Walker, Mr. Todd Watson—at Sydney.

Mr. J. Obee, at Parramatta—Mr. B. Rix, at Windsor—Mr. W. Kitchener, Port Dal.—Mr. John Gregory, Hobart Town—Mr. W. Turner, Hobart Town.

  ― 432 ―

Messenger—Thomas Parsons.

Store Assistant—T. Jennings.

Cooper—Edward Hewen.

Provost Marshall's Department.

Provost Marshall—William Gore, Esq.

Clerk—Mr. Henry Hart;

Bailiff and Officer at Sydney—Mr. W. Evans;

Ditto at Windsor, &c.—Mr. Richard Ridge.

Church Establishment.

Principal Chaplain of the Territory—The Rev. Samuel Marsden, Parramatta;

Assistant Chaplain at Sydney—Rev. Wm. Cowper;

Assistant Chaplain at Windsor—Rev. Robert Cartwright;

Assistant Chaplain at Castlereagh—Rev. Henry Fulton;

Assistant Chaplain for Port Dalrymple, but now officiating at Liverpool—Rev. John Youl.

Assistant Chaplain appointed for Liverpool—Rev. Ben. Vale, returned to Europe on leave of absence.

Parish Clerk of St. Philip's, Sydney—Mr. Thomas Taber;

Ditto of St. John's, Parramatta—Mr. John Eyre;

Ditto of the Chapel at Windsor—Mr. Joseph Harpur.


The Principal Magistrate of the Territory, and Chairman of the Bench of Magistrates at Sydney—The Honorable the Judge Advocate.

Magistrates of the Territory and its Dependencies.

D'Arcy Wentworth, Esq.

John Thomas Campbell, Esquire.

  ― 433 ―

Magistrates of the various Settlements of the Territory.

At Sydney—W. Broughton, Esq. absent at Hobart Town; Simeon Lord, Esq. Richard Brooks, Esq.

Clerk to the Bench of Magistrates—Joshua John Moore, Gent.

Assistant Clerk—Mr. Ezekiel Wood.

At Parramatta—The Rev. Samuel Marsden; Hannibal M'Arthur, Esq.

At Windsor—William Cox, Esq.

At Wilberforce—Rev. Robert Cartwright;

At Castlereagh—James Mileham, Esq. Rev. Henry Fulton;

At Liverpool—Thomas Moore, Esq.

At Bringelly—Robert Lowe, Esq.

At Hobart Town—Rev. Robert Knopwood, A. M. A. W. H. Humphrey, Esq. James Gordon, Esq. Francis Williams, Esq. A. F. Kemp, Esq.

At Port Dalrymple—Brevet Major James Stewart, 46th Regiment; Thomas Archer, Esq.

Medical Staff.

Principal Surgeon—D'Arcy Wentworth, Esq.

First Assistant ditto—Mr. James Mileham, at Windsor.

Second ditto ditto—Mr. William Redfern, at Sydney;

Acting ditto ditto—Mr. Wm. Evans, at Newcastle;

Acting ditto ditto—Mr. Major West, at Parramatta;

Acting ditto ditto—Mr. R. W. Owen, at Sydney;

Acting ditto ditto at the Lunatic Asylum, Castle: Hill, Mr. Thomas Parmeter.

Assistant at General Hospital—Mr. Henry Cowper.

Surveyors of Crown Lands.

Surveyor General—John Oxley, Esq.

  ― 434 ―

Deputy Surveyor—Mr. James Meehan.

Ditto at Hobart Town—Mr. G. W. Evans.

Collector of Quit-Rents, Mr. James Meehan.

Naval Officer's Department.

Naval Officer—John Piper, Esq.

Assistant to the Naval Officer—Mr. Alfred Thrupp.

Wharfingers—Mr. William Hutchinson; Mr. James Stewart.

Acting Engineer, and Artillery Officer, and Inspector of Government Works—Captain John Gill, 46th Regiment.

Civil Architect—Mr. F. H. Greenway.

Barrack Master—Charles M'Intosh, Esq.

His Majesty's Dock Yard.

Master Boat Builder—Mr. William Cossar.

Book-keeper—Mr. John Fowler.

Harbour Master—Mr. Stephen Milton.


Of Government Stock—Mr. Rowland Hassall;

Assistant Superintendent of ditto—Mr. Sam. Hassall;

Of the Lunatic Asylum at Castle Hill—Mr. George Sutter;

Of Government Labourers and Cattle, and of Public Works at Windsor—Mr. Richard Fitzgerald;

Of Public Labourers, &c. at Sydney—Mr. William Hutchinson;

  ― 435 ―

Of Carpenters at Parramatta—Mr. Richard Rouse;

Of Bricklayers—Mr. Thomas Legg;

Of Government Mills—Mr. Abraham Hutchinson.

Principal Overseers of Government Stock, under the Orders of the Superintendent.

Mr. Thomas Arkell, and Mr. William Chalker.

Trustees and Commissioners of Turnpike Roads and Highways.

For the Roads from Sydney to Hawkesbury—D'Arcy Wentworth, Simeon Lord, and James Mileham, Esquires;

For the Roads to and from Liverpool, branching out at any of the above—Thomas Moore, Esq.

Inspector of Highways and Bridges—Mr. James Meehan.

Female Orphan Institution.

Patron—His Excellency the Governor.

Patronesses—Mrs. Macquarie; Mrs. Wylde; Mrs. Hannibal M'Arthur.

Committee for the Orphan Fund.

His Honor Lieutenant Governor Erskine;

The Honorable Mr. Judge Advocate Wylde;

The Reverend Samuel Marsden, Principal Chaplain;

The Reverend Wm. Cowper, Assistant Chaplain;

Hannibal M'Arthur, Esq.

Treasurer—Reverend Samuel Marsden;

Master of the School—Mr. William Hosking;

Matron—Mrs. Hosking.

  ― 436 ―

Institution for the Civilization, Care, and Education of the Aborigines or Black Natives of New South Wales.

Patron, the Governor; Patroness, Mrs. Macquarie.


1. His Honor Lieutenant Governor Erskine, President. 2. The Honorable Mr. Judge Advocate Wylde;—3. J. T. Campbell, Esq.—4. D. Wentworth, Esq.—5. William Redfern, Esq.—6. H. M'Arthur, Esq.—7. The Rev. Wm. Cowper;—8. The Rev. Hen. Fulton;—9. Mr. Rowland Hassall.

Secretary and Treasurer of the Institution—John Thomas Campbell, Esq.


Masters of the Public Schools throughout the Territory.

At Sydney—Mr. Thomas Bowden;

At Liverpool—Mr. Robert Keeves;

At Parramatta—Mr. John Eyre;

At Windsor—Mr. Joseph Harpur;

At Richmond—Mr. Matthew Hughes;

At Kissing Point—Mr. James Cooper;

At Wilberforce—Mr. M. P. Thompson;

At Newcastle—Mr. H. Rainsforth.

Police Establishment at Sydney.

Committee of the Police Fund.

The Lieutenant Governor; the Judge Advocate.

Treasurer—D'Arcy Wentworth, Esq.

Superintendent of Police—D'Arcy Wentworth, Esq.

Assistant to the Superintendent—Mr. Robert Jones.

Principal Clerk in the Police Office…

Assistant Clerk—Mr. Ezekiel Wood.

Six District Constables, and 50 Constables in Ordinary;

  ― 437 ―

Chief Constable at Sydney—Mr. John Redman;

Ditto ditto at Parramatta—Mr. Francis Oakes;

Ditto ditto at Windsor—Mr. John Howe.

Keeper of the County Gaol at Sydney—Mr. John Jaques.

Clerk to ditto—George Jubb.

Coroner—Mr. J. W. Lewin.

Ditto for Windsor, and the Districts on the Banks of the Hawkesbury—Mr. Thomas Hobby.

Bank of New South Wales.

President—J. T. Campbell, Esq.

Directors—D'Arcy Wentworth, Esq.—John Harris, Esq.—Thomas Wylde, Esq.—William Redfern, Esq.—William Gore, Esq.—Robert Jenkins, Esq.

Secretary and Cashier—Mr. E. S. Hall.

Principal Accountant—Mr. R. Campbell, junior.

Printing Office.

Government Printer—Mr. George Howe.

Post Office.

Post Master—Mr. Isaac Nichols.

Deputy at Hobart Town—Mr. James Mitchell.

Licensed Auctioneers and Appraisers.

At Sydney—Mr. Simeon Lord; Mr. David Bevan.

At Parramatta—Mr. Richard Rouse; Mr. Francis Oakes.

At Windsor—Mr. John Howe.

Clerk of the Market at Sydney—Mr. Miles Fieldgate.

  ― 438 ―

Clerk of the Market and Fair at Parramatta—Mr. Francis Oakes.

N. B. These Fairs are held half-yearly; viz. the second Thursday in March, and the first Thursday in October.

Marine Establishment.

His Majesty's Colonial Cutter Mermaid, employed in surveying the Coast, Lieutenant Philip Parker King, R. N. Commander.

His Majesty's Colonial Brig Elizabeth Henrietta—Mr. Thomas Whyte, Master.

His Majesty's Colonial Brig Lady Nelson, at present undergoing repair—Mr. David Smith, Master.

Harbour Pilots.

At Port Jackson—Mr. Robert Mason; Mr. Robert Murray.

At Hunter's River—Robert Whitmore.


Commandant—Captain Wallis, of the 46th Regt.

Acting Assistant Surgeon—Mr. William Evans.

Store-keeper—Mr. John Tucker.

Civil Establishment at Hobart Town.

Lieutenant Governor of the Settlements on Van Diemen's Land—Lieutenant Colonel William Sorrell;

Deputy Judge Advocate—Edward Abbott, Esq.

Chaplain—Reverend R. Knopwood, A. M.

Surgeon—Mr. Edward Luttrell;

Assistant Surgeon—Mr. H. St. John Younge;

  ― 439 ―

Acting Assist. Commissary General—W. Broughton, Esq.

Provost Marshal—Mr. Martin Tims;

Surveyor of Lands—Mr. G. W. Evans;

Inspector of Public Works—Captain Nairn, 46th Regt.;

Naval Officer—Mr. John Beamont;

Store-keeper—Mr. Rayner;

Auctioneer—Mr. Richard Lewis;

Harbour Pilot—Mr. Michael Mansfield;

Two Superintendents, and two Overseers.

Magistrates at Hobart Town.

Reverend R. Knopwood, A. M; Acting Assistant Commissary General Broughton; James Gordon, Esq.; A. W. H. Humphrey, Esq.; Francis Williams, Esq.; A. F. Kemp, Esq.

The Lieutenant Governor's Court, Van Diemen's Land.

Deputy Judge Advocate—Edward Abbott, Esq.;

And two resident Inhabitants, appointed as Members by His Honor the Lieutenant Governor.

Clerk to the Deputy Judge Advocate—Mr. N. Ayres.

And it is by Charter provided, that the present and all future Governors, Lieutenant Governors, the Judge Advocate, Judge of the Supreme Court, and Deputy Judge Advocate, shall be Justices of the Peace throughout the Territory and its Dependencies; and all Places and Settlements therein, with all the Powers possessed by Justices of the Peace in England, within their respective Jurisdiction.

  ― 440 ―

Civil Establishment at Port Dalrymple.

Commandant—Brevet Major James Stewart, 46th Regt.

Assistant Chaplain, now doing duty at Head Quarters, Reverend John Youl;

Surgeon—Mr. Jacob Mountgarret;

Assistant Surgeon—Mr. John Smith;

Superintendent of the Government Herds—David Rose, Esq.

Inspector of Government Public Works—Mr. William Elliot Leith;

Store-keeper—Mr. R. Dry.

Harbour Master.

Master of the Public School—Mr. Thomas M'Queen;

Acting Master Carpenter—Mr. Richard Sydes.

Magistrates—Brevet Major James Stewart, 46th Regt. Thomas Archer, Esq.

Fees and Dues in the Various Offices.

Secretary's Office.—Governor's Fees.

£  s d
For the great seal to every grant, not exceeding 1000 acres 
For all grants exceeding 1000 acres, for every 1000 each grant contains 
For a license of occupation 

Secretary's Fees.


  ― 441 ―
For every grant, and passing the seal of the province, if under 100 acres 
Between 100 and 500 acres  10 
£  s d
All above  15 
In grants of land, where the number of proprietors shall exceed 20, each right 
In ditto, where the number of proprietors shall not exceed 20—the same as for grants in proportion to the quantity of land 
For license of occupation of land 
For every grant of land from 1000 to 20,000 acres, take for the first 1000 acres 15s. and for every 1000 acres more, 2s. 6d. 

Fees to be taken by the Surveyor General of Lands.

For each grant, not exceeding  40 acres 
Ditto  90 ditto  10 
Ditto  190 ditto  15 
Ditto  250 ditto 
Ditto  350 ditto  10 
Ditto  400 ditto 
Ditto  750 ditto  12 
Ditto  1000 ditto 
Ditto, on town leases, per foot on street front 
And on all grants exceeding 1000 acres for each 100 acres so exceeding 

Auditor's Fees.

For the auditing of every grant 

Registrar's Fees.

For recording a grant of land, for or under 500 acres 
For ditto from 500 to 1000 acres 
For every 100 acres to the amount of 20,000  10 
For recording a grant of a township 

  ― 442 ―

To be received in the Secretary's Office.

£  s d
On all colonial appointments, and commissions of whatever kind, where the official seal is affixed 
On all special licenses for marriages 
On the registering of vessels exceeding 40 tons per ton; 
And to the Principal Clerk  10 
For all vessels not exceeding 40 ton's 
And to the Principal Clerk  10 
On affixing official seal to the clearances of vessels of foreign voyages, or fishing, per ton 
For every person leaving the colony, where-of ls. goes to the Principal Clerk 
Transcripts of all papers, per folio of 72 words ls. and transcribing Clerk, per ditto, 3d. 
Licenses for colonial vessels coastwise to the Coal River, Hawkesbury, or elsewhere, not extending to Van Diemen's Land or Bass's Straits, as heretofore to Coal River 

Fees to the Principal Clerk

On free or conditional pardons, each 
Certificates and tickets of leave, each 
N. B.—Six-pence of the free and conditional pardons, and two-pence on certificates and tickets of leave, are to be paid to the Government Printer, as a remuneration for the paper and printing. 

On receiving Appeals.


  ― 443 ―
If for the sum of £50, or under, as heretofore 
Upwards of £50, and not exceeding £100 
£  s d
Upwards of £100, and not exceeding 300 
Any sum exceeding £300 
On all Appeals To the Principal Clerk  10 
To the Door-keeper 
Affixing colonial seal to appeals to the King in Council 
Principal Clerk  10 
Transcripts of all papers, per folio of 72 words ls. and transcribing Clerk per ditto, 3d. 

Naval Office.


  ― 444 ―
Entry for a ship with articles for sale, and in Government service  15 
Ditto, ditto, and not in Government service  10 
Ditto with no articles, ditto ditto  15 
Ditto for all foreign vessels 
Permission to wood and water, for every vessel not exceeding 100 tons per register 
For every vessel upwards of 100, and not exceeding 200 tons 
For every vessel upwards of 200, and not exceeding 300 ditto 
For every vessel upwards of 300, and not exceeding 400 ditto 
For every vessel upwards of 400, and not exceeding 500 ditto 
For every vessel upwards of 500 tons 
Ditto to trade 
Dues of each bond  10 
Ditto of port clearance 
Ditto ditto to the Naval Officer's Clerk 
£  s d
Ditto to Naval Officer's Clerk, for each permit to land spirits or wine, per cask 

For Colonial Vessels

Deeds of entry and clearance to the Hawkesbury 
Ditto ditto to Newcastle  10 
Ditto to the fishery or settlements at the southward  10 
Ditto to Naval Officer's Clerk 

King's Dues for Orphans

For each ton of coals for home consumption 
Ditto ditto exported 
For each 1000 square feet of timber for home consumption 
Ditto ditto exported 


Ships from any part of the world importing cargoes (the manufactures of Great Britain excepted) to pay a duty of 5 per cent. ad valorem on the amount of their respective invoices. 
On every gallon of spirits landed  10 
Ditto wine ditto 
On every pound of tobacco 
Wharfage on each bale, cask, or package 
The Naval Office to receive 5 per cent. on all duties collected at this port. 

Wharfinger's Fees.

On each bale, cask, or package, landed or shipped 
Metage per ton on coals 
Measure of timber, per 1000 feet 

  ― 445 ―

The following duties to be levied and collected by the Naval Officer on the articles hereunder named, upon their arrival and landing, whether for colonial consumption or re-shipment.

£  s d
On each ton of sandal wood  10 
On each ton of pearl shells  10 
On each ton of beech-le-mer 
On each ton of sperm oil (252 gallons)  10 
On each ton of black whale or other oil 
On each fur seal skin  1½ 
On each hair ditto  0½ 
On each kangaroo ditto  0½ 
On cedar, or other timber, from Shoal Haven, or any other part of the coast or harbours of New South Wales (Newcastle excepted, as the duties are already prescribed there), when not supplied by government labourers, for each solid foot 
For every 20 spars from N. Zealand or elsewhere 
On timber, in log or plank, from New Zealand or elsewhere, for each solid foot 

Gaoler's Fees.

From every debtor on his discharge from each action 
From every sailor confined for being disorderly, for the first night thereof 
For every following night 
From every free person thereof, and person having a ticket of leave, taken up and confined for being disorderly, on the discharge of the same, each 

  ― 446 ―

£  s d
From every person receiving a certificate of his or her term of transportation being expired (reference being always had to the black book in his possession) 

Fees to be received by the Chief Constable

On the apprehending and lodging in gaol any sailor who may be found riotous or disorderly, of constables assisting in the apprehension 
For each night that sailors so apprehended may be confined; which is to be directed as the foregoing 
For the apprehending of deserters or runaway sailors, to be divided equally among apprehending constables and himself 
For serving summonses from the Judge Advocate's Office, for debts under 40s. each summons 
For the seizure of stills, or other articles prohibited by the Colonial Regulations, and ordered for distribution among the seizing Constables, the Chief Constable is to receive an equal proportion with them. 

Surplice Fees.


  ― 447 ―
Marriages by License, Clergyman 
Clerk  10 
Ditto by Banns, free persons Clergyman  10 
Clerk banns 
£  s d
Sexton  10 
Christenings, for registering Clerk 
Churching, free persons only Clergyman 
Funerals, free persons—Clergyman 
Grave digger 

Post Office Charges

Every letter, English or Foreign 
Every parcel not exceeding 20lbs. 
Every ditto if exceeding 20lbs. 
Every colonial letter from any part of the territory 
Soldiers' letters, or those addressed to their wives 

Market Duties at Sydney.—Grain, &c. lodged in the store to be paid for as follows; viz. wheat or barley 3d. per bushel; maize or oats 2d. per ditto; potatoes 3d. per cwt. and if not sold the same day shall pay store-room rent every succeeding market day the articles continue there, to the clerk, who is not to deliver up such articles until the same be paid.

Market and Fair Duties at Parramatta.


  ― 448 ―
For each horse, mare, gelding, or foal, if sold 
Ditto ditto, ditto, if not sold 
For each bull, cow, ox, or calf, if sold 
Ditto ditto, ditto, if not sold 
£  s d
Sheep, lambs, or pigs, per score, if sold 
Ditto, ditto, ditto, if not sold 
And any number of sheep, lambs, or pigs, under a score, for each sold  1½ 
Ditto, ditto, ditto, if not sold  0½ 

Ferry across the River Hawkesbury, called Nowland's Ferry:

Tolls for each foot passenger 
A saddle horse 
A foal 
A horse and chaise 
A cart with 1 horse or two bullocks 
A ditto with 2 horses or 3 bullocks 
A waggon with 4 horses or 6 bullocks 
For horned cattle 1s. per head 
For do. if more than 1, and not exceeding 20, 9d. per ditto 
For ditto, if upwards of twenty, 6d. per ditto 
For sheep 2s. per score, or 7s. 6d. per hundred 
For hogs and goats 2d. each, or 2s. per score 
Passengers to pass and repass the same day for one payment. 

Toll Gates between Sydney and Parramatta:


  ― 449 ―
For each head of horned cattle 
For each score of sheep or swine  10 
For every single horse 
For every cart drawn by a single horse or bullock 
For every cart drawn by 2 horses or bullocks 
For every cart drawn by 3 horses or bullocks 
£  s d
For every cart drawn by 4 horses or bullocks  10 
For every waggon drawn by 2 horses or bullocks  10 
For every waggon drawn by 3 horses or bullocks 
For every waggon drawn by 4 horses or bullocks, or more 
For every single horse chaise 
For every curricle with two horses 
For a four-wheel carriage drawn by 2 horses 
For the same drawn by three horses 
For the same drawn by four horses 

N. B. The tolls between Parramatta and Windsor are exactly the same as those between Sydney and Parramatta, only at the former a cart drawn by 4 horses or bullocks is 10d.

Tolls at the New Bridge over the South Creek at Windsor, called Howe Bridge.

For each foot passenger 
Ditto ditto single horse 
Ditto ditto ditto, or bullock in draft 
A cart, with 2 horses or bullocks 
For each horse or bullock above that number 
Waggons, or four wheeled carriages with two horses or bullocks 
For each head of cattle not in draft, under a score 
For every score 
Ditto ditto per hundred 
Ditto ditto sheep, goat, or pig, under a score 
Ditto ditto a score 

  ― 450 ―

The Governor and Family, the Lieutenant Governor, and all persons on public duty to pass free.

Tolls to be taken at the Ferry across the River Hawkesbury.

(This is Mr. Howe's Ferry).

£  s d
For each foot passenger 
A single horse 
A single horse chaise 
A chaise with 2 or more horses 
A cart with 1 horse or bullock 
Each additional horse or bullock 
Waggons, or 4 wheeled carriages, with 3 horses or bullocks 
Each horse or bullock 
Each head of cattle not in draft, under 6 
Ditto ditto under 20 
Every score 
Every sheep, goat, or pig, under a score 
Ditto ditto per score 
Ditto ditto per hundred 

The unweaned young of every kind, half price.

Tolls to be taken at the Bridge over the Chain of Ponds, near Windsor.

For a single horse 
A cart and horse, or two bullocks 
Ditto with more than two 
A waggon with 3 horses or 4 bullocks 
Ditto with more 
A single horse chaise 
A four-wheel carriage 
Horned cattle, each 
Sheep and pigs, per score 

  ― 451 ―

The Colonial Garden.


FOR a general winter crop in field or garden, should be planted from the end of January to the end of February, or even the beginning of March, rather than lose the planting; and they will come into use in winter, when cabbages and other vegetables run to seed. The ground should if possible be prepared a month before the planting, and a preference given by the country gardener to new ground, or dry wheat stubble, where the soil is light. The town gardener should keep his ground in a good state by frequent light manuring.

The sets made choice of should be the produce of the last winter crop; and when planted should have a covering of light manure; without which the ground will be impoverished; but with such assistance be improved.

The best potatoes to preserve for sets are of a middle size, as well for profit as security; for if the largest are made use of, there must be a considerable waste; and those of the dwarf kind should be rejected, from their degeneracy and weakness.

An experienced gardener, who has been a settler here more than twenty years, plants his seed potatoes uncut for the winter crop; his reason for which is, that if they are cut they are likely to perish in the ground, from the rains of March; which will not be the case if put in whole.

In July the ground should be prepared for the summer crop, at which time the winter crop will be fit for digging; in which process every care should be taken

  ― 452 ―
to prevent their being bruised; and if possible they should be dug in cloudy weather, to avoid exposure to the sun, which would rot them; whereas if carefully preserved they will keep sound for a length of time; which will be the more desirable, as at this season vegetables are mostly scarce and dear.

In August the planting should be made, or even in September, if necessary; and at the end of the latter, or in October, they will require to be hilled and earthed, and well cleansed from weeds, which must also now and then be done as weeds make their appearance. In the choice of seed for this crop, a middle sized potatoe should be preferred, without any objection to their being cut, as is the customary mode of planting.

Manure.—Fresh stable dung, and litter, or decayed thatch, answers better for manure than that which is very rotten; but if the ground be fresh and light, they will want no manure, and the potatoes be of a better quality, though probably less plentiful.

In October you may also plant potatoes for a latter crop; and this, though perhaps less abundant than that sown in August or the beginning of September, will nevertheless be sufficiently productive to pay well the expence and labour of planting.

The potatoe is so essential and desirable an article of food, that too much care cannot be bestowed in their culture and preservation; for should other crops fall short, this will afford the grower a certain means of supporting his family.

Carrots and Parsnips

For a general crop, may be best sown in December and January. The ground should be dug deep, and

  ― 453 ―
broke up very fine. If the soil be light, the seed should be sown on a calm day, and trod in.

Carrots and Parsnips may also be planted in July, and also in November. They thrive best in an open situation, or a light sandy soil; and after they come up, should be thinned and set out with a small two inch garden hoe.


For a constant supply may be sown in January, April, May, July, August, October, and early in November, at a time when the ground is in a moist state. The plants sown in April will not run to seed. Care should be taken to set out the plants in a richer and stronger ground than the bed they are taken from; otherwise the crop will be poor. Their first bed should now and then be weeded with the hand, in dry weather, and the freshest and strongest plants removed first. In setting them out, a passage should be allowed between the rows of at least two feet, and in the rows the plants kept eighteen or twenty inches distant from each other, which will allow them a free circulation of air. As they grow up, they should occasionally be earthed up a little, and carefully weeded, as nothing has a more negligent and slovenly appearance than a foul bed of cabbage. In very dry hot weather, their first bed should be watered now and then; after rain they should be set out, but not during its continuance, as it would wash the mould from the roots, and numbers decay without taking root at all in the new bed. Cabbages run to seed in August and September.

A gardener of long experience in the Colony has favored us with the following remarks on the culture of

  ― 454 ―
the cabbage: “Although cabbage seed may be here sown with advantage at several times of the year, yet I have of late years confined myself to two sowings only; namely, in January, and as near the middle of May as I could find the weather most favorable, for two general crops. That sown in January comes well in for a winter supply; but must be taken great care of, or will come to nothing; for as January is one of our hottest months, they will require to be shaded from the sun's excessive heat by boughs, which if closely twined together will continue their shelter even after the leaves are withered; and also, to be watered at least once in every two or three days, until they get pretty strong in the ground. The other crop, sown in May, will come into use early in summer; and do not require any care more than they usually receive.”


The ground should be prepared in February; and at the latter end of the month some may be planted; for which purpose gentle showery weather is most favourable.

Turnips for a general crop should be sown early in March, and they will be ready for food for sheep in the beginning of May. During their growth they require hoeing once or twice, to thin and keep them clean, if the land be foul.

Turnips for table use may be sown at any time between March and September, or the beginning of November, when absolutely necessary.

Turnips for Sheep.—The ground should be prepared in January and February, by the plough or hoe, harrowing, manuring, and totally cleansing it from all

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weeds whatever, so that it be brought into the best state possible.

The Seed.—To raise turnip seed properly is an object worthy of the strictest attention. To do this, the bed should be examined carefully when the turnips have attained about a third of their size, and the largest, smoothest, and most healthy taken up and transplanted into a richer bed, in rows a foot wide, and about six inches between the plants that are in the same row.—The seed will be fit to cut the latter end of November.


The seed may be sown at any time between November and February; but best in December. Some sow about the middle of May for a summer crop, and this practice is found to answer.


The seed should be sown in October, in drills, four drills in a bed four feet wide, the ground being first well prepared, and richly manured. At the latter end of April, or beginning of May, the haulm should be cut down within two inches of the bed (though some cut it nearly level), and constantly kept from weeds. The ground should be dug with a three pronged fork, and not with a spade, as the latter will cut the crown of the roots, and destroy the plants. A professed gardener of twenty-three years practice in the colony assures us, that he has now a bed of twenty years standing, which constantly yielded a good crop until the year before last, the failure of which he attributed to the ground being worn out, and therefore set out a fresh bed. In this country it requires a cool soil, and

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that the beds should not be laid too high, four or five inches being a sufficient height.


In March prepare the ground, by breaking it up well, and richly manuring it. At the end of the month, and beginning of April, sow for a light crop of onions for immediate use.

In April prepare for a general crop, which should be sown at the latter end of the month, or beginning of May, to keep them from going to seed. When they grow to a proper size, which will be from the latter end of October to the beginning of November, they should be carefully laid down, so as not to break the tops; for should the tops be broke, and the wet penetrate, the onions will inevitably spoil. When fit to draw, they should be gathered on a fine dry day, and lain under cover, so as not to be at all exposed to the sun.

Pease and Beans of all kinds.

The ground should be prepared in March, by well working and manuring; and at the end of the month, and in April, they may be sown for a spring crop. Some sow from the beginning of March till the middle of June, as occasion may require.

Prepare in August for a latter crop; and

French beans may be as well sown in October as at any other time.

Cucumbers, Pumpkins, and Melons.

The ground should be got ready for these in August, and they should be sown in September.

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May be sown when turnips are sown.

Lettuces and Small Sallad

Are sown every month, for a constant supply; but lettuces are best sown in April and November, and small sallads in May, and the latter end of November.

Grass and Clover.

Turnip ground, on which either is intended to be sown, should be cleared, cleaned, and broke up in August, great care being taken to leave no weeds or large clods.


Is best sown in March and September.

Brocoli, brown and white

Should be sown the beginning of January, and treated as cabbage sown at that time. Some observe the practice of sowing from November until February, but this is a vague method, and not to be depended on.


March is the proper season for planting this fruit. The runners and leaves should be all cut close away before they are set, which will strengthen them greatly, and before winter they will have new leaves. If planted in clumps, the fruit will be larger than if suffered to run over the bed; but by the latter method they preserve a more delicate appearance, and are certainly less likely to contract filth.

As soon as planted, a sprinkling of fresh earth

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should be thrown over the beds, which should be plentifully watered twice or thrice a week, if the season turn out dry; and as the plants require much air, they should be thinned, in order to preserve a free circulation.

When sown in beds, the following mode of treatment should be observed:—When the bed is well prepared, plant the rows of the large kinds, such as the Chili and Carolina, two feet apart, and allow one foot between each of the plants in the same row. The smaller kinds do not require so much space; eighteen inches between the rows, and eighteen between the plants will be sufficient; but as much greater space may be given as the ground will admit of.

In April all strawberry beds should be well dressed and cleaned, in order to prevent the lodging of insects; and in July they should be gone well over, and have their spring dressing; in doing which the runners must be taken off from the plants, and the weeds cleared away. The ground will then also require to be loosened, and would be much benefited by a layer of fine manure and fresh earth between the rows, as this treatment will strengthen the plants, and produce the largest and finest fruit.


Should also be dressed and cleaned in July.


Begin in April to pinch and prune the vines, which must be cleaned from all cankered and unhealthy leaves or other substances, to preserve them from insects. In July they should also be gone over, and pruned and

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nailed, where requisite. All walls and stakes should then be attentively examined, to prevent the harbouring of insects, which will otherwise destroy the young wood and fruit.

Pine Apples.

In the management of Pinery, should gentlemen incline their attention thitherward, the following observances will be useful. In May let them be unplunged, and lain down on their sides, till all their leaves be free from water. Take off all yellow leaves, and suckers, and let these suckers be plunged into fresh pots of earth, and in a fresh bed of heat, by means whereof the Pinery will always be kept full. The spider is their chief enemy, and therefore should not be permitted to harbour near them, as the smallest of the tribe will kill the crown, and destroy the fruit.

Trees of all Kinds

In JANUARY and FEBRUARY should be BUDDED. A competent judge will best inform himself of the proper time for this operation by the ripe appearance of the buds themselves. For this use the practical gardener chooses a small instrument which may be made of bone, with wrappers of worsted, which being elastic, is better than bark, or any other substitute. The tops of the budded stocks are by some left uncut until the August or September following; but a gardener of much experience in the Colony makes it a rule to cut his tops off immediately, as the buds strike much sooner with this practice.

PEACHES and PLUMS are best budded upon their own stocks.

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APRICOTS may be budded upon peach stocks.

The ENGLISH MULBERRY upon the cherry; or Cape; and ORANGES will succeed best upon lemons; and all tender trees are better to be budded in summer than in spring.

It may be here proper to observe, for the better information of those who have not given themselves the trouble of dividing the year into seasons, and which it would indeed be difficult to do by a comparison with those to which in Europe we were accustomed, that the spring months are, September, October, and November; the summer months, December, January, and February; the autumn months, March, April, and May; and the winter months, June, July, and August. Hence it is observable, that our wheat harvesting begins in the last of the spring months, November, and is entirely over before the end of summer.

In March, all fruit trees should be examined, and the broken or decayed limbs taken off.

In May, all fruit trees should be pruned, except evergreens, and such branches as are necessary to be taken off cut close to the tree, that the wound may heal the sooner, and thus prevent the tree from injury by rain or dew.

In May, orange trees may be safely transplanted, as well as in

June; which is the general season for transplanting fruit trees: in doing which, the roots should be carefully taken up, and planted as near to the surface as possible, taking care at the same time that the whole be covered, being first spread out like an open hand; after which the covering may be thickened with a little rich manure; and when the hole is filled, the

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earth about the root should be trodden gently, so as to fix the position of the plant.

June is also the best time for making layers, and planting cuttings from hardy trees.

In July, such fruit trees as were not transplanted in June should be removed, and stocks to bud and graft upon transplanted.

In August, evergreens may be transplanted, in which great care must be observed, as they are very tender; and as their roots will not bear exposure to the sun, they must be so carefully dug round as to admit their being taken up with as large a ball of earth clinging to the root as can be done, in which exact state they always should be fresh planted.

In August, also, the nursery will require to be well gone over and cleaned, and young trees prepared for grafting. Wall fruit and shrubs must be now particularly attended to, in divesting them of every foul or decayed substance.

In this month, also, all gardens should be cleaned and dressed. The gardener ought to be particularly attentive in keeping off weeds and insects, as grubs frequently make their appearance at this time, which very much injure all vegetable productions.

This month also the nursery wants cleaning, and the young trees must be prepared for grafting: the weeds preparatory to which, must be cut down and destroyed, or they will afterwards give much trouble. Decayed branches should likewise be taken from fruit trees; and such trees as appear stunted should have the ground opened about the roots.

SEPTEMBER is a good month for grafting fruit trees, the scions intended for grafts being cut off a fortnight

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or three weeks before, and the ends which are cut stuck in the ground until wanted for use.

Trees budded at the beginning of the year must now be cut down within about two inches of the bud; this space above the bud being left to tie the young shoots to, to prevent their being broken off by the wind. No shoots should be suffered to grow but the eye that was budded, and all others should be rubbed off as soon as they appear.

OCTOBER.—Young trees that were grafted in September should now be examined, and all the young shoots broken off, but one or two, both from the grafts and stocks:—The clay must be taken off, and the bandages loosened. The ground between the rows of all young trees should also be kept clear of weeds, or they will deprive the trees of a great part of their nourishment.

Apricot and peach trees should be examined this month, and where the fruit appears to be set too thick, which will be mostly the case in prolific seasons, they must be reduced to a moderate quantity. This must nevertheless be done with care, and only such of the fruit as is proper to remain left upon the tree.

In this month the garden should be cleaned all through, and walls and fruit trees well examined, to prevent insects from lodging.

In NOVEMBER such trees as were inoculated the previous summer will want the young shoots tying, either to the top of the stock, or to have a stake driven in near them to tie the shoot to, that they may not be broken off by the wind. All budded and grafted trees will in November want constant attention. All shoots that do not grow from the eye of the bud, or from the

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graft, must be taken off, that the graft or bud may receive all the nourishment the stock can afford.

In November evergreens may be propagated by layers, from the young shoots of the summer's growth.

In December the same observance is to be attended to with respect to evergreens; and peach trees should now be thinned of their fruit, where it appears too thick.

Observations on some particular Fruit Trees.

The Orange.

In pruning, the knife should be as little used as possible, if you wish them to bear. The southerly winds are very unfavorable to their growth, and parts opened by the knife admit the air, and kill the bloom. This tree is perhaps more infested by ants than any other; and the black contracted appearance of the leaves is much attributed to this insect. From this persuasion, which is pretty general, various methods have been tried to keep them off. Human ordure laid round the boll of the tree will prevent their appearing so long as it retains moisture, but not longer; tar has been applied round both the trunk and branches, and only answered while moist; yet a cure, if the ant be really inimical, is certain to be found, with little trouble, and without expence, in common suds from a wash tub, in which ley has been used. This wash should be laid well about the roots in the evening, when the ants have left the tree, which will be mostly the case, and in wet weather always so, and there need be little apprehension of their return next morning; a woollen bandage, dipped in oil, will also be found a preventative to their ascending the tree. This application, whenever ants appear, will have the desired effect; but whether

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these insects are injurious to the tree or not, is to be doubted upon this principle, namely, that the ant, being excessively carnivorous, is instinctively led to the orange tree in quest of the eggs, exuviæ, larvæ, &c. of some very minute insect, whose eggs are attached to the leaves by a glutinous substance, emitted by themselves in such quantity as to discolour the leaf, the pores of which being thus stopped, it becomes hard and tusky, and gradually closes. It seems impossible that this change should be produced by the ant: for if it even attacked or destroyed the blossom, this would not affect the leaves when the tree is not in bloom; and therefore it is rational to conclude that their changed appearance proceeds from some other cause, perhaps from some other insect, perhaps from the assaults of the weather, or some peculiarity in its soil or situation, or from a combination of these and other causes; in exemplification whereof it is worthy to be remarked, that a gardener in the Brickfields planted a number of seed sixteen years ago, all from the same tree; of which forty-four came up, and were all treated with equal care. None shewed fruit until about seven years since; when one produced about two-hundred oranges, and four or five others had from thirty down to ten or a dozen each. The following year the same trees were full; and afterwards others began to bear. This very great disparity in their time of bearing, keeping in mind at the same time that the seeds were from the same tree, all sown at once, and all equally well attended to, would be sufficient to excite astonishment, were we not to make allowance for the various causes that might have tended to accelerate or retard their growth.

The gardener himself says, that the chief of the defaulters

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were a good deal shaded from the sun by a range of peach trees, which depriving them of a great proportion of the warmth necessary to a fruit which thrives best in the hottest climates, he considers sufficient to occasion all the difference spoken of.

The Apple

Has a great enemy in a minute insect called the Cochineal, owing more, perhaps, to its being nearly of the same colour, than from any resemblance to the Spanish insect of that name. A gentleman who had eight trees that had for several years borne a delicious apple, had the mortification to find the whole of his trees at once infested by those insects in excessive number; after which they left off bearing, and after failing in many experiments to relieve them, he came unwillingly to the resolution of cutting down the trees. These insects are of a dark red, approaching to a purple, and combine in such numbers on the roots as well as branches, as to shew in protuberated clusters, exhibiting a downy whiteness on the surface. A gardener of the colony, who has attended a good deal to this matter, affirms that a weed called the Churnwort presents a perfect remedy to the disaster; with this weed, the roots, cleared of the earth, and the branches also, he advises to be thoroughly well rubbed.

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Victualling one Mess of five Men.

Beef.  Pork.  Flour.  Plumbs.  Pease.  Suet. 
Ps.  Ps.  lbs.  lbs.  quarts  lbs. 
Sunday  2½  ½  0½ 
Tuesday  ½  0½ 
Wednesday  2½  ½  0½ 
Friday  2½  ½  0½ 
Say 26 Weeks  78  78  325  52  78  52 

£  s d
78 Pieces of Beef, at £8 per 42 pieces, is  14  16 
78 do. do. Pork, at £9 per 53 do.  13  10 
325 lbs. Flour, at 
52 lbs. Plumbs, at  10 
78 quarts Pease, at 
52 lbs. Suet, at 
2½ Tons water butts at 60s.  10 
5)45  16 
Say a ship of 500 tons to carry 200 men  200 
£1831  13 
Say 500 tons freight at £6 out  3000 
£4831  13 

200 men at £4831 13s. 4d. is equal to £24 3s. 2d. per man.

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