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Part XI.

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No. 39: Eucalyptus tereticornis,


The Forest Red Gum.

(Natural Order MYRTACEÆ.)

Botanical description.

— Genus, Eucalyptus, see p. 33, Part II.

Botanical description.

— Species, — Eucalyptus tereticornis, Sm. A tall tree, with a smooth, whitish or ash-coloured bark, shedding in thin layers. — (F. Mueller and others.)

Leaves. — Lanceolate, mostly falcate and acuminate, often exceeding 6 inches long, the veins rather regular and numerous, and oblique as in Eucalyptus rostrata, but often rather coarser, the intramarginal one rather distant from the edge.

Peduncles. — Axillary or lateral, not very short, terete or angular, the upper ones sometimes forming a short panicle, each bearing about four to eight flowers on pedicels of 1 to 3 lines.

Calyx-tube. — Turbinate, 2 to nearly 3 lines diameter.

Operculum. — Conical acuminate, usually about 1/2 inch long, always much longer than the calyxtube and usually broader, of a rather thin texture and smooth.

Stamens. — Often 1/2 inch long, more or less inflected in the bud, but sometimes only very shortly so at the ends; anthers small, ovate, with parallel distinct cells.

Ovary. — Nearly as long as the calyx-tube, and convex or conical in the centre.

Fruit. — Obovoid or almost globular, 3 to 4 lines diameter, the rim broad and very prominent, the capsule not sunk, the valves protruding beyond the rim .- (B.Fl., iii, p. 241.)

Botanical Name.

— Eucalyptus, already explained, Part II, p. 34; tereticornis, Latin — teres, teretis, long, and round, taper as a tree or pillar; cornu, a horn, referring to the shape of the operculum.

Vernacular Names.

— "Forest Red Gum." This tree is very closely related to the Murray Red Gum, which is always found near watercourses or on alluvial country. The species is, with important exceptions indicated, usually found in open forest country, hence I recommend the adoption of the prefix "Forest" to Red Gum, the name by which it is very commonly known, with the view to save confusion. It sometimes also goes under the names of Blue and Grey Gum, and even others, but these names are best reserved for other trees.

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Aboriginal Names.

— By the aborigines of northern New South Wales and southern Queensland it is called " Mungurra," or "Mungara." By those of Central Queensland it was called "Arangnulla," according to the late M. Thozet. Caley (1800-10) gave the names (Sydney district) as " Yarro" ("Bastard Gum") and "Burringora " to a broader-leaved form, perhaps variety latifolia. Cumbora ("July, 1807") is certainly variety latifolia, while "Calgargro" is certainly variety squamosa, while "Caro" probably is.


— Eucalyptus subulata, A. Cunn. See also the names given under the separate varieties.

Leaves, 0il.

— Messrs. Schimmel & Co. (Bericht, April, 1893, p. 38) examined the oil of a Red Gum from Queensland, and say:— "A red oil of an odour not easily definable, resembling oil of Zeodary. Contains no cineol. Practically valueless."

Messrs. Baker and Smith (Research on the Eucalypts) say of this species:—

Specific Gravity at 15° C.  Specific Rotation. [a]D  Saponification Number.  Solubility in Alcohol.  Constituents found. 
0.9218  -10.2°  26.7  1 vol. 80%   Pinene, eucalyptol, aroma-dendral. 

As will be seen later, there are at least three forms of tereticornis at Tenterfield, but I cannot assert positively which one is the Red Gum of Tenterfield referred to in the following:—

Oil from a variety of Eucalyptus, which is called Red Gum of Tenterfield. Specific gravity, 0.9144 optical rotation, [a]D = -2° 38'. Insoluble in 70 per cent. alcohol; soluble in equal parts of 80 per cent. alcohol. The oil has an odour like cumic aldehyde, contains cineol, but is free from phellandrene. As these data show, it is on the borders of a class of superior Eucalyptus oils, but it cannot replace a normal globulus oil. — (Schimmel & Co., Semi-annual Report, October, 1900, page 32.)


— Of a deep red colour, hard and inlocked in the grain, heavy and durable. Apt to warp in seasoning, and, in common with many of its congeners, it is very hard to work up when dry. It has some tendency to shell off, which limits its use for such purposes as flooring and decking. It is much esteemed for fence posts and any underground work, its great durability for this purpose having been long established. Used also for naves and felloes of wheels, and for general building purposes. Its merits, and defects are much the same as those of Murray Red Gum, and I draw attention to it as a meritorious timber for wood-blocks. It is a valuable timber for railway sleepers.


— The normal species furnishes the largest trees, — say, up to 100 or 120 feet high, with a diameter of 3 or 4 feet. Notes on the sizes attained by the varieties will be given below.

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— The normal form is chiefly confined to the coastal districts and to the eastern slopes of the table-lands. As for definiteness I have given details of localities of the varieties, I give a few illustrative localities of the normal form.

Victoria. — Gippsland.

New South Wales. — Eden to Moruya, Shoalhaven River, Crookwell, north to Sydney and Parramatta. Very near the normal on the Mudgee line; common along the North Coast.

Queensland. — Common on coast, at least as far north as Rockhampton; the Herbert River; and the Northumberland Islands. Leichhardt called some specimens "Scaly Gum."

New Guinea. — It is one of the few Eucalypts that extend to this dependency.

Varieties of E. tereticornis.

Eucalyptus tereticornis is one of the most variable of our Eucalypts; it has an extensive range, and exhibits much variation even in its operculum., which is usually looked upon as its most characteristic organ. For example, the operculum, of var. squamosa is conical and even hemispherical; a similar tendency is shown in var. dealbata, and especially in those forms which extend into the far interior, and which, I think, cannot be differentiated from Eucalyptus rostrata growing in those regions. Var. squamosa has a peculiar glaucous appearance unique among the Eucalypts in the districts in which it grows; this appearance is also to be observed in interior forms of Eucalyptus tereticornis. In fact, glaucousness is an accidental character, the same plant being often more glaucous at one period of the year than at another, while the difference in glaucousness, owing to environment, is notorious.

Of this species we have at least four well-defined varieties. I call them varieties, as they run into each other and every one runs into the other and into the typical form. I will give instances of this later on. Mr. Duff, formerly Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens, found what he called no less than four forms in the Sydney Domain. They are all near the species type, but all vary in habit of tree, foliage, fruit, etc.

Certain Kanimbla Valley, N.S.W. (Lowther), specimens are interesting in this connection. They have fruits and buds between dealbata and latifolia, forming indeed one of the strikingly intermediate forms. The leaves have very marked intramarginal veins, and the fruits remind one of those of Eucalyptus punctata in shape. A few yards away we have a tree whose fruits are nearly normal.

There is an instance, of fibrous barked tereticornis mentioned by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 241). "In one specimen from the granite hills between Nine-mile Creek and Broken River, Victoria, F. Mueller has appended the note that the bark is

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persistent like that of ‘Box.’" Without suggesting for a moment that Mueller is wrong, it is proper to put students on their guard that Eucalyptus resinifera, has a fibrous bark and sometimes has opercula as long as ever seen in Eucalyptus tereticornis.

1. Var. dealbata, Deane and Maiden. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1899, p. 466.)


— Eucalyptus dealbata, A. Cunn. ex Schauer in Walp. Repert. ii, 924.

It is most commonly called " Red Gum" or "Cabbage Gum."

This is a very widely diffused form chiefly found in the interior, though, when the localities given are studied, it will be found that it has a wider range. It is usually neither a straight nor a large tree ; it is more or less glaucous, and the rim is often nearly horizontal or truncate. The type came from Wellington Valley, but it is too unstable to be called a species. Sometimes it has very small fruits and appears to run into var. latifolia.

It undoubtedly resembles a small-fruited form of Eucalyptus punctata sometimes, added to which the bark is often precisely similar to that of the species named, but the timber is redder. Var. dealbata is an interior species while Eucalyptus punctata chiefly belongs to the coast districts. Thewarning is necessary when I mention that both the late Baron von Mueller and Revd. Dr. Woolls sent me specimens of var. dealbata from Grenfell and Condobolin respectively as Eucalyptus punctata.

Leaves, Oil.

— In my "Useful Native Plants of Australia" I quote Staiger, of Queensland, who distilled an oil which he said was dealbata. Schimmel (Bericht. Oct. 1893, p. 19) apparently examined the same oil. It is also referred to in " The Volatile Oils" (Gildemeister and Hoffmann) p. 537. This oil is palpably not that of var. dealbata. The name has been applied to more than one tree in Queensland — Eucalyptus pulverulenta, var. lanceolata (Eucalyptus nova-anglica), amongst others. Messrs. Baker and Smith (Research on the Eucalypts) analysed the true leaves of var. dealbata:—

Specific Gravity at 15° C.  Specific Rotation.[a]D  Saponification Number.  Solubility in Alcohol.  Constituents found. 
0.9261  +4.1°  2.05  1 1/4 vol. 70%  Eucalyptol, pinene. 

Following are some precise localities for this variety:—

Victoria. — Beechworth (specimens from Gippsland Lakes slightly glaucous, otherwise normal).

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New South Wales. — The "Red Gum" of the Tumut flats. Fruits small and the valves more exserted than usual. At Tumut and Adelong Crossing it is sometimes called "White Gum," and its foliage is drooping and rather coarse; it has glaucous buds and approaches the typical species. Mr. R. H. Cambage has sent a pedicellate form from Carabost, near Tumberumba. From Wagga Wagga I have it with very plump buds and pale valves; it also approaches the normal species; specimens from Burrowa also approach the normal species.

The "White Gum" of Bowning (A. Murphy) has glaucous buds, and connects with variety latifolia.

A good test for var. dealbata is the horizontal rim. But (e.g. Goulburn and Forbes) trees otherwise var. dealbata have a sloping rim.

Albury; Barmedman, very blunt buds, nearly ovoid; Wyalong; Young; Grenfell and Weddin (Red or Cabbage Gum).

This tree is called Cabbage Gum on account of its small size and crooked, stunted shape. It is most difficult to get a straight log (either from trunk or branch) of even 4 feet in length. The bark is smooth and grey, similar to the Red Gum (Eucalyptus rostrata) both on trunk and limbs — in fact the whole tree appears to be the Red Gum in miniature, except that it does not grow straight. It is sometimes used for posts for fencing when no other timber can be obtained, such as on rocky hills, where it is generally found, and where carting other kinds is difficult. It makes good charcoal — (F. R. Postlewaite, Grenfell). Specimens from Grenfell, Wyalong (W. S. Campbell), and other western localities, have buds resembling those of Bentham's variety brevifolia a good deal.

Condobolin, including Mt. Tyriga (commonly called the centre of N.S.W.). This is a tree which, if growing in the Sydney district, would, as regards its bark, be judged to be Eucalyptus punctata. There is no doubt that, in its fruits and in other respects, it shows the affinity of Eucalyptus tereticornis to Eucalyptus punctata.

Then we come to the western districts. It should be borne in mind that the type of this variety comes from near Wellington. I have had a good deal of difficulty with some of the western forms.

"Red Box" or "Red Gum." Tall straight trees of large dimensions with thick bark of a clean appearance. Timber red; a valuable timber for all purposes. Capertee Valley (J. L. Boorman). — This form is nearest var. dealbata, but in this district it shows transit to the normal form and also to var. latifolia.

At Mudgee we have var. dealbata and at Gulgong the form shows transit to var. latifolia. At Cassilis specimens collected by Leichhardt tend to the species type.

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At Bathurst and Wiseman's Creek we have a form with slightly sloping rims to the fruit.

At Orange and Cowra the var. dealbata is nearer the Wellington type. At Lyndhurst we have very glaucous, small fruits, between var. dealbata and var. latifolia.

Other specific westerly localities are:— Stuart Town; Minore; Dubbo to Tomingley and Peak Hill; Harvey Range.

It is often stunted and nearly like a mallee in the dry country, e.g., at Mount Boppy (the most north-western locality recorded, R. H. Cambage), Nymagee, Byrock, and Gundong Creek on the Bogan.

Then we have it rather common in the Warrumbungle Range (W. Forsyth), some specimens showing strong affinity in buds and fruits to Eucalyptus rostrata (Murray Red Gum). Other localities in the district for var. dealbata are Gilgandra; top of Nandi Hill near Coonabarabran (fruits sessile and rim rather domed) ; plains near Baradine; and Cobborah to Merrygoen. Crossing over to the North-western Line we have it abundant near Narrabri, and a very small-fruited form at Boggabri.

It is the Brown-barked Gum of New England according to Christie's specimen 4e.note

On New England, as far west as Barraba, it is common; also near Tingha, where it is very glaucous; at Merriwa it approaches the typical species, while on the Liverpool Range it is common. Near Murrurundi, on the gravelly ridges and sandstone rocks, it grows as large as the normal species. The buds are very glaucous. At Bullock Creek, near Trundle, Mr. R. H. Cambage found it with ovoid, nearly hemispherical, buds. Charles Stuart collected it in New England and wrote — "30–40 feet. Bark corrugated, very hard, but not very rugose, separating in small pieces three-quarters of an inch thick." The Rev. Robert Collie calls it "Soft Gum" (ranges between Tenterfield and border). Its abundance in New England makes it reasonable to expect it in Queensland, say about Stanthorpe, and it should be found in the drier country of the west of that State.

2. Var. latifolia, Benth., B.Fl. iii, 242.

Leaves ovate to lanceolate. Flowers with a strong cimicine smell. Shoalwater Passage — R. Brown." Brown named this form Eucalyptus cimicina. It has nearly ovoid buds, and the intramarginal veins are sometimes so well marked as to give the leaves a triplinerved appearance, hence Tausch, in the Vienna Herbarium, named it Eucalyptus triplinervis. The common "Swamp Gum" of New South Wales is often markedly triplinerved. I have provisionally included with E. cimicina the common broad-leaved or swamp form of Eucalyptus tereticornis, to which it undoubtedly possesses considerable

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affinity. I have not seen the fruits of E. cimicina ; the flowers are few in the umbel, while those of the common swamp form are usually smaller and more in the umbel. This swamp form is not usually a tall tree; it is rather crooked and its timber is inferior, that of the normal species being good. Its foliage is dense, and its leaves broader and coarser than those of the type. Its opercula are usually slender and even subulate. Naudin thought it should be given specific rank, and hence called it Eucalyptus amplifolia.

So that we have a Stinking Gum (Eucalyptus cimicina, R.Br.) in Northern Queensland, which Bentham named Eucalyptus tereticornis, var. latifolia; we have also a Stinking or Swamp Gum (Eucalyptus amplifolia, Naudin) of Eastern Australia — Central Queensland to Southern New South Wales.

I suggested (Bulletin Herb. Boissier, 1902) that these two Stinking Gums come under Bentham's variety, but if not, our Stinking or Swamp Gum may be called variety amplifolia; some may think as Naudin did, that it is worthy of specific rank.

I have E. cimicina from Shoalwater Bay Passage, Perey Island, and Mackay, all in Northern Queensland.

All the forms which now follow come under Eucalyptus amplifolia, Naudin.

The "Swamp Gum" has often very quadrangular stems, and has sometimes markedly triplinerved leaves (e.g., Wingello specimens). This quadrangular character is especially marked in specimens from Tenterfield to Sandy Flat, but it is frequent in other specimens.

Of those with the larger and broader leaves, their timber is often next to worthless." — (A. Rudder, in Agricultural Gazette, January 1896, p. 15.) Mr. Rudder brought this matter under my notice thirteen years ago, but I had not then sufficient material to make a general statement. Normal tereticornis timber is undoubtedly durable and valuable, but the "Swamp Gum" is not so. A form of variety brevifolia which also grows in low-lying situations, and other forms, are also inferior. As a general rule, it may be stated that Eucalyptus timbers grown in moist situations are deficient in durability and strength. We are now able to understand the conflict ing statements in regard to the timber of Eucalyptus tereticornis. At the same time, under Wingello, I give an account of a tree which is undoubtedly the same form, but it grows on hills (rarely on flats), and is reputed a good timber.

I think it is very probable that some of the local prejudice in regard to the timber of vars. latifolia, squamosa, etc., arises from the stunted, scrambling look of the trees, their growing in damp situations, and their usual faultiness. Nevertheless, I think that the timber will often be found to be durable in damp ground, e.g., for posts, although not useful for many other purposes, because long straight lengths cannot usually be obtained. This form is mainly confined to New South Wales.

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Following are some specific localities (I may say it has for many years been cultivated in South Africa, and it comes true from seed):—

Southern Localities. — Colombo, near Candelo; Goulburn.

Wingello "Blue Gum," Large trees on the summit of the hills, and in rare cases, on the flats. Ribbony bark, but the smooth blue colour of the bark is most prominent. Has large leaves of a thick texture. Wood red, and stated to be good. — (J. L. Boorman). Twigs markedly quadrangular.

"Shoalhaven River Gum," Wingello (A. Murphy), Bowral.

"Bastard Blue Gum," "Blue Gum," and "Red Gum." Bankstown to Cabramatta. "Fairly plentiful in low-lying lands, reaching to fair proportions. Smooth bark, patched in colour with green and white." — (J. L. Boorman). Called "Bastard Box" or "Grey Gum" by Woolls.

Western Localities. — Richmond Common; Kanimbla Valley, in swamps. "Swamp Gum," Capertee. Tall trees, stem slightly ribbony, of a greyish colour, sap-wood yellow, centre red. — (J. L. Boorman).

Bathurst, "Red Box; at Sunny Corner, "fair-sized trees, bark smooth sap-wood white, darkens on exposure ; heart-wood red, bark thick, brittle, grain of wood short." — (J. L. Boorman.) Not to be confused with the proper Red Box (Eucalyptus polyanthemos).

Northern Localities. — "Swamp Gum" of the Hawkesbury district, "Bastard Gum," "Stunted Gum," "Flooded Gum," "Bastard Box." "Grows on flats; about 30 feet high. Branches start about 10 feet from ground. Grey bark, with ribbons hanging to trunk up to 10 feet from ground. Used largely for fencing posts. The local opinion is that it is very durable, and one of the best timbers for ground work." — (J. D. Hay, Wyong.) Near Dungog. "Broad leaf, timber no good." (A. Rudder.)

"Stinking Gum," "Broad-leaf Gum," "Flat Gum" (because growing on flats). Port Macquarie (G. R. Brown).

Chandler River, New England; Sandy Flat to Tenterfield and Jennings; Grafton to Dalmorton; Moonanbah.

Following are some Queensland localities:— "Blue Gum," Gayndah;

"Water Gum," grows on banks of creeks, attains a diameter of 3 to 4 feet, and height of 100 feet (Maryborough); "Swamp Gum " of Byerley's timber tests, undertaken in 1881 at Rockhampton.

Speaking of Eucalyptus tereticornis in Queensland, the late Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods says:— "It grows near running water, or in the beds of streams. It is found on both sides of the Dividing Range, and even on the very borders of mangrove swamps. In well-watered open forests it may be said to be the prevailing gum-tree. In the tropics, where the soil is rich, the banks of the streams are so

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thickly clothed with scrub that one begins to lose sight of it, especially north of Cardwell. I remember seeing it on the Herbert River and on the Barron; but at Herberton and on the tableland it is not uncommon." (Proc. Linn. Soc., vii, 331.) Var. latifolia is probably referred to in the above passage.

3. — Var. squamosa, Maiden.


— Eucalyptus squamosa, Deane and Maiden (Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1897, p. 561).

A medium-sized tree, with a scrambling and drooping habit, often stunted. Bark smooth or scaly, often blotched; timber soft and faulty. Grows in low-lying and barren places. Timber dark red; evidently a depauperate form.

Foliage glaucous or dull green; fruits small, and with a, narrow, rather sharp rim, opercula hemispherical or ovoid. The sunk space between the valves shows undoubted affinity to Eucalyptus saligna (N.S.W. Blue Gum).

Mueller called varieties brevifolia and squamosa, var. amblycorys, testimony to the closeness of their relationships.

Bentham looked upon var. squamosa as a variety of Eucalyptus viminalis, and said, identical with the specimens collected by Caley, with a hemispherical calyx-tube, and broad, almost globular, operculum." — (B.Fl. iii, 240).

These specimens I afterwards found in the Vienna Herbarium. It is interesting that Caley, who was botanical collector in New South Wales for Sir Joseph Banks (1800-10), gave the aboriginal name as "Calgargro." Bentham has also (under viminalis), "near Duck River" (Parramatta); "Drooping Gum," Woolls. I have also seen these specimens, and they are var. squamosa.

The precise range of this variety remains to be defined. The most southerly locality known to me is Hill Top (Southern Line); the most westerly, Agnes Banks, near Richmond; while I do not know any locality north of the Hawkesbury.

Other southern localities are Bargo Brush, Thirlmere, National Park, and Bankstown and Cabramatta. I have also got it at Berowra and Peat's Road, near the Hawkesbury.

4. — Var. Bancrofti Maiden, var. nov.


— Var. brevifolia Benth., partim.; Eucalyptus Bancrofti, Maiden.

Var. brevifolia, Benth . "Leaves mostly ovate or oblong, obtuse. New England, in very exposed situations in the mountains." — C. Stuart.

Stuart's specimens are Nos. 7, 127, and 308. One label reads: "From most exposed parts of mountains. A straggling tree. 20-30 feet; very smooth white bark, separating in thin scabs." Another reads: "A large tree, but frequently flowering when young."

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The rim of the calyx in this gum is very marked. The valves are well exserted and pale. The operculum and calyx are full of oil-dots. The leaves are dull, the veins are finer and less prominent than the type; the intramarginal vein is usually not so far distant. The peduncles are much broader and flatter than in the normal species; the pedicels likewise are broader and flatter. The operculum is sub-cylindrical, much longer than the calyx, but the calyx is larger and the operculum smaller than in the normal species. The operculum. is narrower than the calyx, giving the appearance of "egg in egg-cup " or acorn and cup. This shape is very marked. The pedicels are flat and thick. The whole fruit is coarser in appearance than is that of the normal species.

Mr. Boorman and I found this form at Jennings, on the New South Wales — Queensland border. It is a large scrambling tree, growing amongst masses of granite; branches rather rotten; fruits broad-rimmed. It is in every way similar to Charles Stuart's specimens. It is in the highest degree improbable that it will not be found in Queensland. Mr. J. L. Boorman found trees at Emmaville, which he thus described: "Large trees growing throughout the district with a patchy bark (after the fashion of E.punctata), leaves long, glaucous; suckers, ovate to oblong; buds, long cylindrical, but rather pointed; fruits, with prominent valves." The same form has been found by Mr. R. H. Cambage at Tingha. The buds, while the calyx is still of greater diameter than the operculum, have the operculum as long as that of var. latifolia (Swamp Gum).

Then we come to the "Orange Gum," growing on ironstone and serpentine soil at Honeysuckle Flat, Port Macquarie. There are a few hundred trees, attaining no great size — say, 18 inches to 2 feet diameter, 12 feet to first fork, and 30 feet high. Timber, very deep red, especially when freshly cut; brittle, usually hollow, and the timber looked upon as inferior. The buds are precisely those of var. brevifolia, the fruits nearly so, while the leaves are 6 inches long.

For specimens from Burpengary (Queensland), I am indebted to Dr. T. L. Bancroft. His notes are: "Wood, red; timber, useless; grows in swamps near the coast; trunk and branches always crooked; tree very stunted, under 50 feet; decays in the centre; very short in the grain. A common tree from Redcliffe to Caboolture. I do not know its wider range."

The leaves are all lanceolate. Some of them are precisely of the texture of those of Honeysuckle Flat. Some leaves are more falcate and thicker. The buds show the egg-in-egg-cup arrangement, but the operculum. varies from subulate to conical. Sometimes, particularly in the coarse foliaged specimens, the operculum becomes swollen in a ring at a little distance beyond the suture. In drying, such buds exhibit a constricted appearance — viz., just above and just below the swelling. The valves are markedly pale.

To summarise, in var. brevifolia the leaves are usually 2–3 inches long. The coastal ones (Port Macquarie) are up to 6 or 7 inches long. The Burpengary

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specimens (also on the coast) are of the same length and size; presumably through being near to the sea, some of them are more coriaceous. The buds are pointed, like those of the Emmaville specimens. I therefore find the var. brevifolia a very unstable form, for we have

1. Blunt opercula and blunt short leaves (var. brevifolia).

2. Blunt opercula and long leaves. (Orange Gum of Port Macquarie.)

3. Long opercula and long leaves. (Burpengary.)

4. Long opercula and leaves intermediate in length. (Emmaville.)

I think it best to include them under one name, which those who hold different views as to the limitation of species can accept as a variety or a species, as they see fit, viz.:— Eucalyptus tereticornis, Sm.; var. Bancrofti, Maiden; or, Eucalyptus Bancrofti, Maiden.

Apart from the inappropriateness of the name brevifolia for my wider variety, the name brevifolia for a species (Eucalyptus brevifolia, F.v.M.) is pre-occupied. The variety is a depauperate form, and is nearest to var. squamosa in habit, foliage, and timber, though not in fruits. Mueller confused the two varieties, as has already been stated.

On tops of hills, Liverpool Range, we have a small. tree of erect habit, and somewhat like Spotted Gum in appearance. It has markedly triplinerved sapgreen leaves. In the general shape of the leaves, in buds and fruits, it is intermediate in character between Bentham's var. brevifolia and var. latifolia. As it is not far from the region where var. brevifolia is chiefly found, I have placed it with that variety. At the same time var. latifolia, which has a far wider range, occurs at no great distance. A specimen like this is very interesting, as showing how impossible it sometimes is to name a tree without qualification.

In dried specimens a dark line round the suture of the bud is often seen in this variety and var. latifolia.

In New England, e.g., Tenterfield (H. Deane) there are trees of Eucalyptus tereticornis, which in their glaucous buds and in their fruits absolutely connect with var. Bancrofti. Another connecting link is from Parish of Uffington, also Williams River (A. Rudder), with leaves broad and glaucous all over, which connects with Bentham's var. brevifolia.

Eucalyptus exserta, F.v.M.

Journ. Linn. Soc. iii. 85 (1859).


— Eucalyptus rostrata, Schlecht. ; var. exserta, F.v.M.; E. Foeld-Bay, Naudin.

I now bring under notice a tree which was suppressed by Mueller himself and for many years has been erroneously included under both Eucalyptus rostrata and

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Eucalyptus tereticornis. Mueller in Eucalyptographia, under Eucalyptus rostrata, says, In respect to the fruit Eucalyptus exserta approaches closer to Eucalyptus tereticornis than to Eucalyptus rostrata, differing from both in the persistency of its outside wrinkled and rough, inside somewhat fibrous bark; both Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus exserta have the stalklets often thicker and shorter than Eucalyptus rostrata. Eucalyptus exserta, the Bendo "of the aborigines, is now known to range from the Burnett to the Gilbert River, but does not extend to West Australia."

It is a small tree with narrow lanceolate leaves and persistent bark on the trunk and branches, of an ashy brown, wrinkled and fissured. Mueller originally described the bark as intermediate in character between that of a Bloodwood and a Stringybark. But a more obvious difference between this species and tereticornis and rostrata lies in the brown (not red) timber of exserta.

It appears to be common in the Rockhampton district, Queensland, and is described to me by A. Murphy as "very plentiful, with narrow sparse leaves; reminds me of Eucalyptus amygdalina. Timber soft, easily split; rarely more than 2 feet to 2 feet 6 inches in diameter." It is there known as "Messmate." It has short pedicels. At Maryborough, Queensland, it is called "Peppermint."

I have also got it from Rockhampton (A. Thozet), No. 4737, Northumberland Isles (R. Brown, 1802-5), "cf. Eucalyptus semisuperam in his handwriting"; Comet River (O'Shanesy). Tenison-Woods (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. vii, 341), says that the basaltic ridge between Port Mackay and Clermont were the most northerly localities known to him. So far as known it is confined to Queensland, but additional localities will readily be found now that I have drawn prominent attention to it.

A very prominent character is the very broad sloping rim of the fruit, and its very exserted valves, like cusps.

The fruits of E. Foeld-Bay, a cultivated species described by Naudin, have large and very broad rims, and filiform pedicels of half an inch.

I have specimens, otherwise similar, from East Gippsland, Victoria, but which have very short pedicels.


Plate 41: Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis, Sm.). Lithograph by M. Flockton.

  • A. Twig of the normal species.
  • B. Fruits of the same.
  • C. Buds and fruits of variety dealbata.
  • D. Buds and fruits of Bentham's variety brevifolia.
  • E. Leaf and fruits of variety latifolia (Eucalyptus amplifolia, Naudin). [N.B.-The fruits are generally more numerous in the head.]
  • F. Buds and fruits of variety squamosa.

Footnotes Issue No. 39.

Supplementary Material Added To Volume 4

No. 39. Part XL

Eucalyptus tereticornis, Sm. THE FOREST RED GUM. (Family MYRTACEÆ.)

Timber. - See vol. ii, p. 2.

Mostly used for house blocks and fencing posts, as the trees are generally too faulty for willing purposes. -( Forest Guard N. Stewart, Glen Innes.)

Habitat. - See vol. ii, p. 3.

To be found along the western slopes of the Dividing Range from Dundee to Tenterfield. - (Forest Guard N. Stewart, Glen Innes.)


"Forest Red Gum." Glen Innes District. - (Forest Guard N. Stewart, photo.)

  ― 13 ―

No. 40: Sideroxylon australe,

Benth. et Hook. f.

The Black Apple.

(Natural Order SAPOTACEÆ.)

Botanical description.

— Genus Sideroxylon, Linn.

Calyx-lobes, corolla-lobes, stamens, and ovary cells 5, or rarely 6 or more, or the ovary cells in species not Australian twice as many.

Scales (or staminodia). — In the throat of the corolla alternating with the lobes.

Ovules. — Laterally attached.

Seeds. — Solitary or few, rarely all perfect; testa hard, shining ; hilum lateral, linear or broad, about half as long as the seed; albumen copious, fleshy ; cotyledons broad, flat, usually thin.

Trees or shrubs, glabrous or tomentose.

Flowers. — Sessile or pedicellate, clustered.

Botanical description.

— Species, S. australe, Benth. and Hook. f. Gen. Plant. ii, 655. (Achras australis, R.Br. Prod. 530.)

A tree attaining sometimes a great elevation, quite glabrous except a slight appressed pubescence on the very young shoots.

Leaves. — Shortly petiolate, from elliptical-oblong and shortly and obtusely acuminate to broadly obovate-oblong and very obtuse, mostly 3 to 4 inches long, but sometimes larger, usually much reticulate.

Flowers. — In axillary clusters or almost solitary on pedicels of 2 to 3 lines, more globular than in S. xerocarpa, and S. Richardi (A. laurifolia).

Calyx-segments. — 5, broadly orbicular, about 2 lines diameter.

Corolla. — Scarcely exceeding the calyx, the lobes short and spreading; scales of the throat slightly dilated upwards.

Anthers. — On very short filaments near the base of the corolla-tube.

Ovary. — Densely villous, tapering into a short glabrous style, 5-celled; ovules laterally attached near their base.

Fruit. — 1 inch diameter.

Seeds. — Few, large, compressed, the hilum on the inner edge more than half as long as the seed, much broader than in S. xerocarpa, narrower than in S. Richardi. — (B.Fl. iv, 282, as Achras.)

Botanical Name.

— Sideroxylon. From two Greek words, sideros iron, and xylon wood, owing to the hardness of the wood of the first species described australe, Latin, southern, and hence often Australian.

  ― 14 ―
Vernacular Names. — Variously known as"Black Apple," "Brush Apple," "Wild" or "Native Plum," because of its fruit.

Aboriginal Names.

— Following are some aboriginal names:— "Jerrawawa" or"Jerra-wa-wah," Illawarra and Brisbane Water (New South Wales); "Wycaulie," Richmond and Clarence Rivers (New South Wales); "Tehoonboy," Northern New South Wales and Southern Queensland; "Panunpin," of some Queensland aborigines (A. J. Hockings).


— Sapota australis, A.DC. Prod. viii, 175; Achras australis, R.Br. Prod. 530.


— Purplish black, glaucous, something like an Orleans plum, 1 1/2 inch long and about an inch broad. Of a coarse insipid flavour and somewhat astringent to the taste. The large seeds, and the frequent occurrence of maggots in the fruit are drawbacks, but it yields a fair jelly or preserve, frequently made in the country districts, where it is a prolific bearer. Some of our sapotaceous seeds will perhaps prove to be good oil-yielders. The seeds of the Black Apple can scarcely be distinguished in appearance from those of Bassia latifolia of India which yield Mahwa oil.


— The wood is close-grained, firm, prettily veined, and good for cabinet-work (Macarthur). Very handsome planks can sometimes be obtained from it. It is occasionally used by turners and wood-carvers; it works splendidly. It is of a pale yellow colour, and the complicated grain affords a pattern of a singularly pretty appearance. It is singular that the figure has a very similar appearance whether cut radially or tangentially. It requires very careful seasoning. It is used for staves and laths, and for general building purposes. It is not much used.

Two slabs of this wood which have been seasoned over twenty-five years have weights which correspond to 55 lb. 13 oz. and 57 lb. 14 oz. respectively per cubic foot.


The remarkable gum which exudes from this tree is worth investigation. I can answer for its disagreeable tenacity when it gets about the hands. — (Tenison-Woods, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. iv, 135).

The juice is milky and the order to which this tree belongs yields the gutta percha of commerce. It would not be difficult to collect a quantity of this juice for research, and it should certainly be examined. The milky sap resembles cream in taste if eaten in small quantity.

An allied tree, Achras sapota, Linn. is of special interest in this connection.

This is said to be the tree which produces most of the "chicle," a gum extensively imported into the United States, and used in the manufacture of chewing gum, which is almost wholly composed of it. It is said that Vitellaria mammosa (L.) Radlk., as well as other species of the genus Vitellaria produce chicle, and that the best gum for "masticgatory" purposes is that obtained from V. mammosa.

  ― 15 ―
According to Treasury reports for 1897, 5,315,902 lb. of this gum, valued at 1,091,892 dollars was imported into the United States in the year 1896-97. The crop for 1897-8 is estimated at only 2,600,000 lb. Under the Wilson Bill the gum was admitted free of duty, but now there is a duty of 10 cents. per pound.


— It attains a height of at least 100 feet. Trees 3 feet in diameter are not uncommon. "The largest tree seen at Brisbane Water measured 10 feet 6 inches in circumference." — (Macarthur.)


— This is a brush tree, being found in the coastal brushes from the Illawarra northward to Rockhampton, Queensland, and apparently the same plant, but in leaf only, Lord Howe's Island, Milne." — (B.Fl. iv, 282.) This is a mistake; there is, however, a Sideroxylon on the island, viz., S. Howeanam, F.v.M. (See my paper on the " Vegetation of Lord Howe Island." Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1899, p. 130.)


Plate 42: Black Apple (Sideroxylon australe, Benth. and Hook., f.). Lithograph by M. Flockton.

  • A. Flowering twig
  • B. Flower.
  • C. Flower, opened out.
    • (a) Corolla-segment.
    • (b) Anther.
    • (c)" Scale of the throat," or rather staminode.
  • D. Flower.
    • (a) Sepal.
    • (b) Ovary.
    • (c) Stigma.
  • E. Section through ovary.
  • F. Fruiting twig.
  • G. Vertical section of fruit, showing two of the seeds.
  • H. Seed.
    • (a) Hilum.

Supplementary Material Added at the End of Volume 2

No. 40. Part Xl.

Sideroxylon australe, Benth. et Hook., f.


(Natural Order SAPOTACEÆ.)

Timber. — See vol. ii, p. 14.

I am also sending you a piece of "Black Apple" wood which was in the old "Wilesbro" house for eighty years. When the house was pulled down it was found that the "white ants" had eaten completely all the hardwoods, and some of the Beech and Cedar, but the "Apple" had been left entirely. I did not notice any piece showing any sign of decay either.-(Mr. Forest Guard George Tingeombe, Beechwood, Hastings River.) Black Apple (called by some Plum), grows about 100 feet, 6 feet girth, trunk deeply ridged; timber brownish- yellow, useless except for firewood, good burner and chopper. — (Robert Kaleski, Dorrigo.)

  ― 16 ―

No. 41: Angophora lanceolata,


The Smooth-barked Apple.

(Natural Order MYRTACEÆ.)

Botanical description.

— Genus, Angophora, Cav.

Calyx-tube. — Turbinate-campanulate, adnate to the ovary at the base, the free part broad and open, 5-angled, truncate, with five small distinct teeth.

Petals. — 5, attached by their broad base, herbaceous and aristate, with coloured margins, much inibricate in the bud, spreading and separately deciduous.

Stamens. — Numerous, free, in several series; filaments filiform; anthers versatile, the cells parallel, opening longitudinally.

Ovary. — Inferior, the flat summit glabrous, 3 — or 4 — celled, with many ovules in each cell, ascending on a peltate placenta; style subulate, with a capitate stigma.

Capsule. — Enclosed in and adnate to the hardened truncate persistent calyx-tube, opening loculicidally in 3 or 4 valves.

Seeds. — Perfect (where known), one in each cell, large, broad, very flat, peltately attached on the inner face; testa thin; embryo straight; cotyledons thin, flat, or folded over each other at the edge, deeply cordate, the radicle slightly clavate, scarcely protruding beyond the lobes of the cotyledons.

Trees or shrubs, usually glaucous, pubescent, or hispid with bristly hairs.

Leaves. — Opposite, or here and there alternate, coriaceous, penniveined.

Flowers. — In umbel-like cymes, arranged in terminal corymbs.

Bracts. — Exceedingly deciduous.- (B.Fl. iii, 183.)

Botanical description.

— Species, Angophora lanceolata, Cav. Ic. iv, 22, t. 339.

A tree of considerable size, the bark deciduous in large smooth flakes as in A. Cordifolia, branches and foliage glabrous and scarcely glaucous, or rarely a few bristles on the inflorescence.

Leaves.— Distinctly petiolate, lanceolate, acuminate, mostly 3 to 5 inches long, coriaceous, with numerous fine parallel pinnate veins.

Flowers.— In rather dense terminal corymbs or short panicles, larger and more dense than in A. intermedia, rather smaller than in A. cordifolia.

Calyx.— Usually about 3 lines lone, and 4 lines broad at the top, the teeth very minute or at any rate shorter and thicker than in A. intermedia, and the secondary ribs often very short or quite inconspicuous.

Fruiting calyx.— Usually thick and very smooth. — (B. Fl. iii, 184.)

Angophora Woodsiana, Bail. (Syn. Queensland Fl. 172), is A. intermedia, DC., var. Woodsiana, Bail. (Queensland Flora ii, 605). In my opinion it should be A. lanceolata, Cav., var. Woodsiana, for it is a smooth-barked tree, stunted, and apparently a depauperate form of the species.

  ― 17 ―

Botanical Name.

— It is from two Greek words signifying "vessel bearing," in allusion to the fruits; but its meaning does not imply anything particularly characteristic, as it would be equally appropriate if applied to those of the Eucalypts. The specific, name lanceolata is in allusion to the shape of the leaves; but these vary in width somewhat, being occasionally as narrow as those of the narrow-leaved variety of Angophora intermedia.

Vernacular Names.

— Sydney workmen know it best by the name of Red Gum; but, as this name has been appropriated, over vast areas, by a different tree (Eucalyptus rostrata), it may be well to leave the latter in undisputed possession, reserving for A.lanceolata the appropriate designation or the "Smooth-barked Apple-tree," the only objection to which is its length. The smooth bark is not perfectly white in colour, but of a uniform yellowish-red tint; hence two of its names, "Orange Gum" and "Rusty Gum." Hardly at any period of the year will you see one of these trees unstained with kino, which frequently exudes in considerable quantity, and every bit shows up on the pale-coloured, smooth bark. These stains being of an orange or rusty colour, have intensified the appropriateness of the designations just alluded to. Because it is common on the Blue Mountains, it sometimes goes by the name of "Mountain Apple-tree," but as often as not it is simply called "Apple."

Aboriginal Names.

— That cyclopaedia of aboriginal plant names, the late Sir William Macarthur, records that this tree was called "Kajimbourra" by the blacks of the counties of Cumberland and Camden — a word doubtless with a significant meaning, — and the least we can do is to endeavour to rescue these euphonious names from the oblivion which is fast overtaking those who were accustomed to employ them. Mr. F. M. Bailey records that South Queensland blacks used to call the tree "Toolookar."


— Metrosideros costata, Gaertn., Fruct. i, 171, t. 34 f. 2. M. lanceolata, Pers., Syn. Pl. ii, 25 (not the sp. with the same name, Le. 26). M. apocynifolia, Salisb., Prod. 351.


— Note the delicate petals in these flowers. The closely allied Eucalypts have no petals.

The late Sir William Macarthur judiciously remarked of this tree: "The largest of the genus; the connecting link between Angophora and the smoothbarked Eucalypti."


— As might have been expected with such a free yielder of kino, the timber of this tree is liable to gum-veins; in fact, it is difficult to get a piece of any size from them. Nevertheless it is a useful timber, strong and heavy, and used for naves of wheels, flooring-boards, slabs, rough 'buildings, and fuel. A specific

  ― 18 ―
gravity of .893 is given in a Report, Victorian Exhibition, 1861. It is considered to form good fuel in the Gosford district.

The plant tissue of this tree possesses a wonderful power of accommodating its shape, or rather the direction of its growth, to the rocky ground on which it is usually found. Thus we find the base of the tree often flattened out, and following the course of obstacles, reminding one of a gigantic candle placed on a surface sufficiently warm to soften the wax or fat, which then, by the weight of the candle, moulds itself into shapes determined by the obstacles it encounters. The comparison is a homely one, and it is only intended to refer to the plastic appearance, not, of course, the result of heat in any way in the case of the tree.


— This tree is a free yielder of kino. It dries readily on exposure, so that the aperture is soon blocked up with the indurated substance. If this be picked off, the wound begins to flow afresh, and thus a considerable quantity may be collected. This kino bears a strong resemblance to that of a few gum-tree kinos. It is of a reddish-brown colour, and when quite dry is very friable, readily powdering between the fingers. It possesses a sourish, unpleasant smell, not easily described, which is strongest when the kino is quite new, and the proximity of an Apple-tree can thus be frequently determined by the smell alone. For reasons which need not be gone into now, Apple-tree kino does not precisely fill the requirements of the British Pharmacopoeia as regards kino; nevertheless it is a valuable astringent remedy, frequently available in the bush when more elegant preparations are not obtainable. It usually contains between 50 and 60 per cent. of tannic acid.


— Up to 50 or 60 feet, with a diameter of 2 or 3 feet. On the Narrabri sand-hills its height is 40 to 50 feet, and diameter 1 to 2 feet.


— This tree is found in the coast districts and mountain ranges, and extends a considerable distance into the interior. The most southerly locality known to me is the ranges around Nerrigundah, near the Victorian border (J. S. Allan), while it extends to the Rockhampton district in Queensland. I have a specimen labelled, in Leichhardt's handwriting, " Mingagabarne, Angophora lanceolata. — On the sandy ridges between Archer's and Garral." I have collected it in similar situations near Narrabri, N.S.W., while it has been sent to me from the Lower Lachlan. It is very abundant in the coast districts and in the Blue Mountains, occurring at least as far west as Mt. Tomah. The two Cunninghams found it north of Bathurst, which would connect with the Narrabri locality.

This tree is usually considered a sign of poor soil, and it is marvellous to observe how a giant tree often flourishes upon what appears to be almost bare rock, and one wonders both how such a bulky plant can obtain nourishment and how the roots can spread sufficiently to secure the necessary hold. At the same time the tree does not object to improved surroundings, and I have observed it and Turpentine

  ― 19 ―
(Syncarpia laurifolia, usually a sign of good soil) growing happily together to a fair size, and in some instances the two growing as closely together as if they had sprung from the same stock.


— Seed is freely produced.


Plate 43: Smooth Barked Apple (Angophora lanceolata, Cav.). Lithograph by M. Flockton.

  • A. Flower looked at from above.
    • (a)Stamens.
    • (b) Petal.
    • (c)Sepal.
    • (d) Stigma.
  • B. Flower looked at from below.
    • (a)Calyx.
    • (b)Petal.
    • (c)Stamens.
  • C. Vertical section through the flower.
    • (a)Calyx.
    • (b) Stamens.
    • (c) Stigma.
    • (d) Ovary.
  • D. Cluster of fruits.
  • E. Vertical section through the fruit.
  • F. Transverse section through the fruit.

Supplementary Material Added at the End of Volume 2

No. 41. Part Xl.

Angophora lanceolata, Cav.


(Natural Order MYRTACEÆ.)

Timber. — See vol. ii, p. 17.

The "Plastic" appearance of the trunk has been referred to. I would also like to draw attention to the fact that the branches of this tree display considerable tendency to fuse together when brought into contact, some of the combinations taking on a looping or anastomosing character, sometimes of a grotesque appearance. I am indebted for photographs exhibiting such phenomena to Mr. J. B. Henson, engineer of the Newcastle Water Supply, and the Hon. J. B. Nash, M.D., M.L.C., both of whom obtained their subjects in the Newcastle district, and to Mr. Keith Harris, whose pictures came from Hazelbrook, Blue Mountains.

Exudations. — See vol. ii, p. 18.

Mr. Cambage pointed out to me that there is india-rubber in Angophora lanceolata leaves, which I confirmed. It is common enough in the closely-related "Corymbosæ" section of the genus Eucalyptus.

Size. — See vol. ii, p. 18.

Mr. Boorman and I measured, on Milson Island, Hawkesbury River, a tree 13 feet 6 inches in circumference at 4 feet from the ground.

Habitat. — See vol. ii, p. 18.

The locality, "Lower Lachlan," has not been confirmed. Does anyone confirm it? Mr. Forest Guard W. Dunn records it from the highlands between Acacia Creek and Wilson's Downfall.


Smooth barked apple: The photo. was taken by Mr. W. Forsyth at the National Park, Sydney. The dark stain on the trunk is a flow of kino.

Supplementary Material Added to Volume 3.

No. 41. Part XI. Angophora lanceolata, Cav. THE SMOOTH-BARKED APPLE. (Family MYRTACEAE.)

Synonyms. - See vol. ii, p. 17.

Following is the original description of Metrosideros apocynifolia, Salisb., a synonym. It will be observed that it was sent to England by David Burton, an early Superintendent of Agriculture, who was killed by the accidental discharge of his own gun at the Hawkesbury, in 1792. Metrosideros alpocynifolia, Salisb., Prod. Stirp. in hort. Chapel Allerton (1796) p. 351.

M. foliis suboppositis: laminis ellipticis, marginatis, coriaceis: nervis parallelis. Sponte nascentem juxta Port Jackson, legit Dav. Burton. Arbor pulcherrima foliis marginlatis, quae et in aliis vides, sed multo obsoletius, ut eâ notâ hane facile distinguas.

Supplementary Material Added With Volume 5

No. 41. Part XI. See also vol. iii, P. 165.

Angophora lanceolata, Cav.


(Family MYRTACEÆ).


Angophora lanceolata, Wahroonga, near Sydney. (Photo, R.H. Cambage.)

"Red Gum" (Angophora lanceolata), showing its branch used for a school bell. (Proprietors "Sydney Mail," Sydney.)

  ― 20 ―

No. 42: Scolopia Brownii,

F. V. M.

(Natural Order BIXACEÆ.)

Botanical description.

— Genus, Scolopia, Schreb. Gen. Pl., No. 846 (1789).

Flowers. — Hermaphrodite.

Sepals. — 4 to 6, slightly imbricate when very young, but open long before flowering.

Petals. — As many and nearly similar.

Stamens. — Indefinite, inserted on the thickened torus, with or without glands.

Anthers. — Short, the connective terminating in a thick process.

Ovary. — With 3 or 4 placentas and few ovules.

Style. — Filiform, with an entire or.lobed stigma.

Fruit. — A berry. Seeds 2 to 4, with a hard testa. Cotyledons leafy.

Trees often armed with axillary spines.

Leaves. — Simple, with pinnate veins, entire or toothed.

Flowers. — Small, in axillary racemes.


— Phoberos, Loureiro.

Although Loureiro's Preface bears date 1788, the title-page is that of 1790, so that in strict priority Schreber's name (published in 1789) should be preferred; but as Phoberos has been generally adopted, and Scolopia runs some risk of being confounded with Scopolia, it is perhaps better to retain the former. (J. J. Bennett, Plantae Javanicoe Rariores, p. 188). I think, however, that the reasons quoted for the supercession of Scolopia are quite inadequate.

Botanical description.

— Species, S. Brownii. F. Muell., Fragm. iii, 11.

Perfectly glabrous in all its parts.

Leaves. — From ovate to oblong-lanceolate, mostly acuminate, obtuse or almost acute, rarely rounded at the top, 1 1/2 to, 3 inches long, always narrowed into a petiole of 3 to 4 lines, entire or slightly undulate-toothed, rather thick and smooth, obscurely triplinerved, but all the veins less conspicuous than in most species, either without glands or with two or three marginal glands underneath.

Racemes. — Short and axillary, or forming a terminal panicle of 1 to 2 inches.

Pedicels. — 2 to 3 lines.

Calyx. — Four-cleft, smaller than is S. crenata, apparently persistent.

Petals. — Four, rather longer than the calyx, deciduous.

Stamens. — Numerous, with slender filaments surrounded by a ring of glands, either distinct and shortly club-shaped or irregularly connate.

Anthers. — Small, the process of the connective glabrous, and usually as long as the cells.

Placentas. — Three, with about four ovules to each.

Stigma. — Slightly three — lobed. — (B.Fl. i, 107.)

Botanical Name.

— Scolopia. I am not certain as to the derivation. Perhaps from the Greek skolopsskolopos, a stake; Brownii after the celebrated Robert Brown.

  ― 21 ―

Vernacular Name.

— I know of none.

Leaves and Sooty-mould.

— This tree has the drawback that it is liable to the unsightly appearance known as sooty-mould, so-called because the leaves are often dusted with a black powder. Other trees liable to it in New South Wales are certain Eugenias, the Black Apple (described in this Part), whilst amongst exotics, orange, lemon, and cinnamon trees are often attacked.

Attention is invited to a paper, founded on Australian material by D. M'Alpine, entitled "the Sooty-mould of citrus trees; a study in Polymorphism (Capnodium citricolum, n. sp.)"note Species of fungi included in the group Perisporieæ are the cause of these black sooty coatings found on leaves frequented by green-fly (Aphis) and other leaf insects. These are purely epiphytic and saprophytic forms which derive nourishment from the "honey-dew" secreted by these insects. They multiply very rapidly, and soon form dark coatings on the upper side of the leaves and twigs. Little damage need be feared, since the leaves retain their green colour, and the coating is not enough to stop access of light. Amongst them are species of Capnodium, Meliola, and Apiosporium, as well as the conidial forms Fumago, Torula, Antennaria.note

The sooty-mould on our Scolopia is usually Capnodium.

In his account of "Diseases of the Orange in Florida," Lucien M. Underwoodnote gives an account of the sooty-mould of the orange and olive trees in California and Florida.

The honey-dew is there produced by the bark lice, and the sooty-mould is Capnodium citri, Berk.

Dr. W. G. Farlow recommended treatment with a strong spray of alkali soap. Underwood says: "This disease has not yet made sufficient progress in Florida to demand such treatment, and with the natural enemies of the scale insect to cheek their development, is not likely to prove a serious difficulty."

Unfortunately sooty-mould is more prevalent in the Sydney Botanic Gardens than I like to see it, but our difficulty is that we have to grow plants of very different requirements under practically identical conditions. For example, Scolopia Brownii naturally grows in brushes, i.e., with rich, deep soil, conditions available in but small areas in the Botanic Gardens, where the soil is often shallow and poor. Many of our insect and fungus pests would disappear if the trees on which they grow could have more genial conditions. They would thus become full of vigour, and would repel bark lice and Aphis, and sooty-mould is a consequence of the presence of these insects.

  ― 22 ―
These remarks, are of general application. If people would attend more to the soil, drainage, and general conditions which promote the health of plants, they would have far less need for spraying operations and such special treatment as the introduction of parasites to cope with animal pests. In the same way people who live in healthy surroundings have but diminished need for the services of the doctor.


— This is not a timber tree, rarely exceeding 10 inches in diameter. When quite fresh the wood is white, becoming pink towards the centre.


— Rarely as much as 40 feet in height, with a stem diameter of under 1 foot.


— The type comes from Ash Island, Hunter River, and from the Clarence River. It is confined to good brush-land of the coastal districts, occurring as far south as the Illawarra, and north as far as Cape York in Queensland — the most northerly point of Australia.


— The fruits, or rather the seeds, readily germinate. I desire to bring this tree under notice as a most desirable addition to the arboretum or shrubbery. It can be pruned to any shape, while its dense, shining, drooping foliage renders it a pleasing object. Its one drawback is the tendency to sootymould to which I have alluded.


Plate 44: Scolopia Brownii, F.v.M. Lithograph by M. Flockton.

  • A. Flowering twig.
  • B. Flower in vertical section.
    • (a) Sepal.
    • (b) Petal.
    • (c) Torus or disc. Note the glands which are characteristic of the species.
    • (d) Stamen.
    • (e) Stigma.
    • (f) Ovary.
  • C. Flower, with stamens removed.
    • (a) Sepal.
    • (b) Petal.
    • (c) Torus.
    • (d) Ovary.
    • (e) Stigma.
  • D. Stamen, back and front view.
  • F. Flower, looked at from above.
    • (a) Sepal.
    • (b) Petal.
    • (c) Torus.
  • F. Fruit-bearing twig.
  • G. Fruit.
  • H. Transverse section of the same.
  • K. Seeds.

Footnotes Issue No. 42.

Supplementary Material Added to Volume 3.

No. 42. Part XI. Scolopia Brownii, F.v.M. (Family BIXACEAE.)

Timber. - See vol. ii, p. 22. Mountain Cherry (Scolopia Brownii). - This timber from the Big Scrub, Richmond River, is close,grained, hard, and possesses all the qualities for a good golf-head, which it undoubtedly makes, having stood the tests well."- (R. T. Baker in Golf Illustrated, 28th July, 1905.)

Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer. — 1904.
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