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No. 45: Callitris Verrucosa,


Botanical description.

— Species, verrucosa, R.Br. ex Mirbel. Mém. Mus. Paris xiii, 74 (1825).

A small flat-topped tree 10-15 feet high, mallee-like, "of loose, wide-spreading habit, the branches falling to the ground, then taking an upward tendency, forming a basin shape; in height equal to the width." — (J. L. Boorman).

Male amenta. — There may be as many as 4 male amenta in a cluster.

Fruit-cones. — From 1 1/8 to 1 1/4 inch diameter nearly globular, almost entirely covered with warts on the backs of the valves. They are borne on the old wood, are persistent for some years after shedding the seeds, and are for the most part sessile or shortly pedicellate. The central columella a triangular pyramid, tesselated inside.

Fertile seeds. — Three-winged, rich warm brown (burnt sienna) in colour.

Botanical Name.

— Verrucosa, Latin, "full of warts," referring to the tubercles or swellings at the back of the fruits.

Vernacular Name.

— "Mallee Pine " is a name given to it in western New South Wales.


— C. tuberculata, R.Br., Nouvelle-Hollande (côté méridionale) ex Mirb. Mem. Mus. Paris xiii, 74 (1825) ; Frenela verrucosa, A. Cunn. ex Mirb. loc. cit. (F. verrucosa, Endl. "in herbario Endlicheriano deest"; Parlat. in DC. Prod. xvi, 2, 448); F. tuberculata, Mirb. loc. cit. ; Frenela robusta, A. Cunn., var. verrucosa, Benth. F. crassivalvis, Miq. Stirp. Nov. Holl. Muell. Collect. 1, Ned. Kruidk. Arch. iv, 1856. The type comes from Enfield, S. A. Parlat. op. cit., p. 451, says of the fruits "strobilis haud vel parce tuberculatis sed tantum rugosis." My specimen has very tuberculate fruits. I have seen specimens in the Melbourne Herbarium from the Murray River. Parlatore referred it, as indeed he did other forms, to F. robusta, A. Cunn. Bailey (Queensland Flora) speaks of C. verrucosa as "a tall, erect, usually glaucous tree," the habit and branchlets the same as C. robusta," a description which can only apply to C. robusta.


— The tubercles on the backs of the valves are a characteristic which renders this species easy of determination. These tubercles vary in size a good deal. In some fruits they are few; in others, as crowded as it is possible for them to be.

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I might mention a peculiarity of this pine is that the cones are borne in thick clusters for the most part directly on the larger limbs instead of towards the end of smaller branches as in the common (White) pine. — (R.O. Moore, Coan Downs.)

The same observation has been made by Mr. Boorman in regard to this species.


— This species is too small for timber. I have a note that a sample of "Rock Pine" from the Daubeney Ranges, where the trees are 20-25 feet high, and 6-12 inches in diameter, is a splendid working timber, close-grained, and very showy. I have not seen twigs for many years, and perhaps a reader may forward me cones to see if the "Rock Pine " be identical with the "Mallee Pine" or no.


— A shrub 10 to 12 feet high, with spreading horizontal branches resembling a Cypress — (J. Duff.)

Small stunted pine, similar in growth to mallee, growing among mallee on Bygo Run, 10 feet high, spreading. — (Forester Taylor, Wagga Wagga.) Its manner of growth appears to be much after the style of Whipstick Mallee, i.e., it has practically no trunk, the branches all springing from a hole or stump close to the ground, and being of a decidedly spreading nature. — (Mr. R. 0. Moore, Coan Downs, Mt. Hope.)

Mr. Boorman's description of the plants at Nymagee (ante p. 40) is much the same. In Western Australia never more than a glaucous bush of 6-10 feet high. — (W. V. Fitzgerald.)


— It is a dry country species, found in the interior of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, and also reaching the coast in Western Australia.

The type locality is "intérieur de la Nouvelles Galles du Sud, entre 24° et 38°." The specimens were collected in the same district (by Allan Cunningham in Oxley's Expedition) as C. calcarata were (see C. calcarata, p. 59), and Nymagee and Coan Downs may be fairly looked upon as type localities.

Found amongst mallee scrub on Coan Downs, Roto, and other stations, Lachlan District — (J Duff.) Mallee Pine grows in scattered patches in the mallee on this and neighbouring stations. It is usually found just on the fringe of the mallee, or on low sand rises in the mallee. — (R.O. Moore, Coan Downs.)

A correspondent informs me that it occurs about 1 mile west of Lake Cudgellico, on the road to Welsh's selection, but I have not seen it. The above are New South Wales localities. Lockhart Morton sent specimens of the species from north-western Victoria to Mueller, who labelled it verrucosa.

It also occurs in South Australia; Miquel's type of Frenela crassivalvis came from Enfield, near Adelaide. F. tuberculata came from the côté méridionale, i.e., the coast of South Australia or the south of Western Australia.

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Turning to Western Australia, —

The few trees and shrubs seen on these hills (vicinity of Fremantle and Perth, — J.H.M.) consisted of....and a beautiful species of Calytris or Cypress, of the finest green colour, producing large warted cones. — (Charles Fraser's visit to Swan River, W.A., in H.M.S. "Success," in 1827, in Hooker's Bot. Miscell. i, 225, 1830.)

Fraser's original manuscript runs:—

Of the most beautiful green, producing large verrucose cones.

Again, at p. 229 —

I observed two species of Calytris.

and at p. 233 —

The loftiest parts of the Isle of Buache are thickly covered with Cypress (Calytris).

Buache is the present Garden Island, near Fremantle.

In abundance in close proximity to the sea, slightly north of Cottesloe, and sparingly on Rottnest Island. — (W. V. Fitzgerald.)


Plate 46: The Warted and Stringybark Pines (Callitris verrucosa, R.Br.)(Callitris Macleayana, F.v.M.) Lithograph by M. Flockton.

Callitris Macleayana.

No. A and A1. One form of foliage, natural size, and about three times natural size. B and B1 the second form of "foliage" (branchlets) common in this species. B enlarged and B1 greatly enlarged. C is a fruit. C1 seeds, and C2 two of the clusters of central columellas or aborted ovules of each fruit.

Callitris verrucosa, R.Br. (specimens from near Nymagee, N.S.W.).

A. Twig bearing male flowers. B. Branchlets bearing male flowers. C. Stamen (with anthers). D Cluster of fruits. D1. Very young fruits. E. Single fruit, opened, showing central column. F. Seeds. G. Fruit, from near Karrakatta, W.A.

H. A very warted fruit of Callitris propinqua, R.Br., showing close affinity to C. verrucosa. For remainder of C. propinqua, see Plate 47.

Supplementary Material Added at the End of Volume 2

No. 45. Part XII.

Callitris verrucosa, R.Br.

Aboriginal Name. —

Murrumbidgee Pine, near Tumut, called "kara" by the aborigines. — (Dr. G. Bennett, Wanderings in N.S.W., i, 263.)

Size (and Habitat). — See vol. ii, p. 41.

This tree differs somewhat from a Mallee (Eucalyptus) in its form of growth, as it usually has a trunk, though at times only a few inches in length, and seldom more than 6 inches. Often it begins to spread level with the surface of the ground, but it always had the appearance of branching rather than sending up separate stems like a Mallee. — (R. H. Cambage.) Among the Mallee about here (Mount Hope to Parkes) there is often a spreading Pine (Callitris verrucosa, R.Br.), which grows with a short stem, and branches out almost from the ground. The fruits are larger than those of C. robusta, and are covered with pimples or warts full of a resinous substance South of the Lachlan this tree is sometimes called Turpentine. — (R. H. Cambage, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. W., 1901, p. 208.)

Habitat. — See vol. ii, p. 41.

Warialda, N.S.W. (Rev. H. M. R. Rupp). Fruits covered with tubercles, but tubercles smaller than in the type. Specimens like this show the difficulty of classifying Callitris.

* Compt. Rend. 139 (1904), 927.

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