— In all the States except Tasmania. It is usually gregarious, forming scrub forests on sandy barren lands.


Rocky Bay and Woodman's Point (Preiss No. 1,312); coast districts of South-west Australia (Bynoe); King George's Sound (Baxter); near Fremantle (Hügel); Rottnest Island (Allan Cunningham, also Preiss No. 1,310). All the above quoted by Parlatore, but some may be liable to revision. The type locality is "Ile Rottnest sur la côte occidentale, lat. 31°."

Mr. W. V. Fitzgerald says of this species:—

Abundant on Rottnest Island and sparingly near Claremont. It frequently attains a height of 45 feet.

and the specimens he sends in no way differ from the common White Pine of our western (N.S.W.) country.

Speaking of Western Australia, Diels and Pritzel state:—

It is not at all particular in the choice of its habitat. We have seen it growing on granite on the coast, in the limestone regions of the west coast, on sand in the interior, and on gravelly conglomerates, but always associating with vegetation characteristic of the Eremwan Region. Apart from the littoral it seems, therefore, to be wanting entirely in the districts Darling and Warren. — (Englers' Jahrb. xxxv.)

E. Pritzel's No. 848, Plantæ Australiæ occidentalis, Coolgardie, October, 1901, labelled "Frenela robusta, Cunn.," shows a few warts and inclines to verrucosa. It is an intermediate form of which many other instances could be given.

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Very common in this State, from near the coast far into the interior. In sending me specimens from the Mount Brown Forest Reserve, Mr. Walter Gill remarks:—

Spencer's Gulf is only a few miles due west. You may consider this a real Spencer's Gulf Pine, as it is typical of thousands of similar trees all along the ranges, which rise immediately from the plain forming the borderland east of the Gulf.

The Horn Expedition only collected robusta, or as Mueller put it, "verrucosa of the smooth-coned variety. "


In the Mallee country generally. Some specimens from Mildura (Mr. Borrett) have markedly furrowed valves. I draw attention to this because Bentham, in the key (B.Fl., vi. 235), places robusta in a section in which the "junction of the valves is neither prominent nor furrowed." It is but another instance of the variation which obtains in the genus.


It is abundantly distributed in the dry country west of the Dividing Range of this State. It is unnecessary to enumerate all the localities in the National Herbarium, but following are some notes, chiefly by foresters, some of them made some years ago, and now published for the first time:—

There is no pine growing in any of the reserves in my district, which extends to the edge of the pine country about Wagga and Old Junee. I have searched the country between Old Junee and Wagga for pine, and have only found a few pines, and they chiefly in alienated lands. From Old Junee and Wagga towards Narrandera. you get into the pine-country which is out of my district. I have seen a little pine in the Camping Reserve at Alfred Town, on the banks of the Murrumbidgee, but no quantity, and also a small quantity between Upper and Lower Tarcutta, but very small. — (Forester Mecham, Tumut.) Native Pine grows in the hills, and the soil is of a rocky and stony nature. On Poolamacca Pastoral Holding, 6 miles south of Torrowangee, they are very scarce, only an odd pine-tree here and there. — (W. N. Baker, Acting Forester, Torrowangee.) There is a great scarcity of matured pine timber in this district. The whole of the matured trees have been felled before the present reserves were proclaimed, and great waste of valuable timber took place, the greater portion being allowed to rot on the reserves. The following are the principal pine reserves in my district, within the County of Townsend, and are all fairly well-timbered with young pine, in all stages of growth. Nos. 1,901, 1,902, and 3,156, situated on Puckawidgee Run; Nos. 1,879 and 1,880, Steam Plains; No. 7, Conargo; No. 1,404, Deniliquin; and part of No. 1,458, Warwillah Run. All these reserves, with the exception of No. 1,458, have under my supervision been thinned, and all scrub and undergrowth cut and burnt off by the lessees of the runs. The timber has wonderfully improved since the clearing, and will become very valuable in time. The only other pine reserve in my district of importance is No. 3,103, situated on Chah Ling River, County of Wakool. This reserve is timbered with good pine, most of the trees are now suitable for telegraph posts. Bush fires in this district. have tended to destroy hundreds of acres of splendid young pine forests, both on freehold and Crown lands; very little fire destroys the young timber. There are several other reserves in my district that contain small patches of pine. The total area of pine timbers including all the reserves in my district, I would estimate at about 10,000 acres. — (Forester Wilshire, Deniliquin.) There are about 20,000 acres of land upon the reserves in my district, well-timbered with pines. — (Forester Payten, Corowa.)

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The number of reserves (pine) in my district is 101, and the area which they cover is 467,625 acres. There is a plentiful supply of pine distributed over these reserves in various stages of growth, from trees of half an inch in circumference up to 4 feet. This pinenote is of two varieties, known locally as " Black and White Pine."- (Forester Condell, Narrandera.) As near as I can calculate, there are about 92,000 acres of White Pine on the timber reserves in my district, exclusive of a proposed reserve in the County of Gipps, which I believe has not yet been gazetted, containing about 2,000 acres of pine. Though pine timber is found upon the area abovementioned, it is principally of a small description, the larger trees having been already felled for various purposes, and there are probably at the present time not more than one-third of that number of acres carrying matured trees. The White Pine thrives best on sandy ridges, and is generally found with other timbers, such as Bull Oak and Box. The former is occasionally found in considerable numbers on the Weddin Forest Reserve, for instance, there are hundreds of acres of this class of timber which grows to a greater size here than upon any other reserve that I know of.- (Forester Postlethwaite, Grenfell.) To be found on nearly every reserve throughout the Lachlan and Murrumbidgee districts, especially on stony ridges. — (Forester Taylor, Wagga Wagga.) There is a large quantity of pine timber, the White or Yellow Pine being mostly used; the great bulk of pine now being cut by mills in Dubbo, Narromine, Trangie, and Wellington, being obtained from Crown lands between the railway line and the Bogan River, the belts of timber running from Timber Reserve No. 2,727 to close to Peak Hill, with very little break. The trees being very sound and large, I have already recommended this country be reserved so that the young timber could be protected, which is very necessary, and which if done would give a lasting supply to the mill's named. I would estimate the output of pine in this district at nearly 3,000,000 feet per annum, and this could be maintained if more of the young pine were protected, as near towns small trees are cut and brought in to save carriage. There is also a large quantity of pine, on Crown lands within my district, being carted to towns outside, such as Parkes, Mudgee, Coonamble, &c., the quantity of which I could not form an estimate. The White Pine is found in large quantities growing amongst the scrub, and if the scrub were cleared there would very soon be good pine in its place. The White Pine is the most plentiful in this district.- (Forester Smith, Dubbo.) The White Pine is found growing in the thickest scrubs, and is considered good timber for all purposes; saplings run up straight, with little taper, and are used for rafters, ridging, and bush carpentry in general. — (District Forester Marriott, Dubbo.)

Mr. Marriott's Red Pine is also C. robusta; his Black Pine is (as is usually the case) C. calcarata. I see no marked difference in the colouration of these three Dubbo timbers. If anything, the Black Pine is the lightest; but the two robustas (White and Red Pine) have a clear band of pale sap-wood, while in the Black Pine the band is far less marked. Commenting on this, Mr. Marriott reports, "The Red Pine is considered to be if anything the best timber for milling purposes. The White and Red Pine found on the level country constitute the pine of the plains. Sometimes the Red Pine is called Yellow Pine. For other notes on the subject see "Timber," p. 34.

White Pine is more or less plentiful thence to the north-west railway line.

White Pine is found growing on light loams and sandy loams, chiefly bad country. It is one of the most common tree growths in the district. — (District Forester Bishop Lyne, Narrabri.) The principal reserves in and around Gunnedah comprise 56,613 acres, chiefly composed of pine. Breeza, Doona, Tulcumbah, and Denison may be taken as the largest, but with the exception of the lastnamed there is no pine left of the required size. Breeza reserve, situated 25 miles from Gunnedah, and comprising 19,070 acres, is completely cut out of pine. Thousands of logs have been taken from this reserve for the past twenty-five years. Doona and Tulcumbah reserves may be classified as the same, and unless proper measures are taken the young pine now maturing will be stunted and knotty. Denison

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reserve is, however, a valuable one as far as pine is concerned, the reserve, comprising 29,500 acres, growing an average of eight matured trees per acre, over an area of 20,000 acres. This reserve could also be improved, as far as the young pine is concerned. If it were attended to, it should be able to produce a constant supply of pine yearly. At a rough estimate, there is in my district 163,000 acres growing, on an average, five matured pine-trees per acre, and the young pine saplings, in a healthy state, might be averaged at the same, with an average of more than double.- (Forester Harris, Gunnedah.)

Mr. Harris' district contained both White Pine and also Black Pine, C. calcarata.


This species is found over enormous areas in Western Queensland, extending to near the coast in Central Queensland. In that State we often find species which in New South Wales are looked upon as Eremaean extending to the coast.