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No. 155: Grevillea Hilliana,


White Yiel Yiel.


Botanical description.

— Genus, Grevillea. (See Part 1, p. 1.)

Botanical description.

— Species, G. Hilliana, F. Muell., in Trans. Phil. Inst. Vict., ii, 72 (1858).

The original description is in the following words:—

Branchlets brown silky, leaves large, ovate oblong, blunt, entire or pinnatifid, cuneate at the base, flat, net-veined, above glabrous, beneath silvery-silky; their segments oblong lanceolate; racemes axillary and lateral, solitary, pedunculate, silky, densely many-flowered; bracts minute, lanceolate, deciduous; calyx small, inside and style glabrous, stigma orbicular, nearly lateral, umbonate at its centre.

In forests at the Pine River of Moreton Bay. Hill and Mueller. A magnificent forest tree which I wished to bear the name of its discoverer, Mr. Walter Hill, the Director of the Botanic Gardens, Brisbane.

Later on Bentham described it as follows:—

A large tree, young branches minutely tomentose.

Leaves petiolate, either entire obovate-oblong or elliptical, Very obtuse, tapering at the base and 6 to 8 inches long, or still longer and deeply divided at the end into 2 or 3 diverging lobes, or deeply pinnatifid with 5 to 7 oblong or lanceolate lobes of several inches, the whole leaf then sometimes above 1 foot long, glabrous above, penniveined and reticulate with the primary veins confluent in an intramarginal nerve, more or less silvery-silky underneath.

Flowers small and very numerous in dense cylindrical racemes of 4 to 8 inches, on short axillary shoots, accompanied often by 1 or 2 smaller racemes.

Pedicels about 1 line long, minutely pubescent as well as the rhachis.

Perianth minutely silky outside, glabrous or scarcely pubescent inside, the tube slender, about 3 lines long, revolute under the globular limb.

Torus straight.

Gland semiannular, not very prominent.

Ovary glabrous, stipitate; style long and slender, the stigmatic disk lateral.

Fruit slightly compressed, nearly 1 inch long.

Seed rather narrowly winged all round. (B.Fl. v, 463.)

Botanical Name.

— Grevillea, already explained (see Part 1, p. 2) Hilliana, in honour of Walter Hill, sometime Director of the Botanic Gardens, Brisbane, as already explained. For biographical notes of this officer, see my "Records of Queensland Botanists," Proc. A.A.A.S., Brisbane Meeting, 1909, p. 377.

  ― 54 ―

Vernacular Name.

— The name "Yiel Yiel" or "Yill-Gill" is applied to several proteaceous trees, e.g., Stenocarpus sinuatus and Grevillea robusta, as well as to G. Hilliana. I suggest the name "White Yiel Yiel" for G. Hilliana in allusion to the colour of the timber and silvery appearance of the underside of the leaves, though whether the name is original on my part I do not remember. "Silky Oak" is a name also applied to this tree, in common with many others of the Proteaceæ.

Aboriginal Name.

— "Yiel Yiel" (the name is variously spelt) is a name of aboriginal origin applied in northern New South Wales and in Queensland to proteaceous trees, as already indicated. What the meaning of it is, or to what extent it had definiteness with the aborigines, I do not know.


— Below see a note on some leaves which. are very pinnatifid. Those figured in the drawing are not so, and the plate represents the leaves as ordinarily observed in this species. Particularly as regards the Proteaceæ, we want plenty of field observations in regard to variation of organs yet.


— Hard, durable, and beautifully grained; used for coopers' work, cabinet work, veneers, &c. It is, however, but very little known, being usually cut up and mixed with the timber of two other Silky Oaks — Grevillea robasta and Orites excelsa.


— A tree of 50 or 60 feet, and with a diameter of 2 or 3 feet.


— This tree is confined to Queensland and the Northern Rivers of New South Wales. Following, are the localities given in the Flora Australiensis:—

Queensland. — Brisbane River, Moreton Bay (W. Hill, F. Mueller); Rockingham Bay (Dallachy).

New South Wales. — From the Clarence to the Tweed River (C. Moore).

Mr. F. M. Bailey, in his "Queensland Flora," adds "Logan and Albert Rivers" (Hill). A Queensland specimen in the National Herbarium, Sydney, bears the label in Leichhardt's handwriting, "Dinnangurumbin B.B. Brush, 18th. Sept., 1843." The precise locality could doubtless be traced by perusal of Leichhardt's journals. This specimen was labelled G. Hilliana by Mueller himself. Its leaves are very pinnatifid, are in leaf only; and I cannot say from the material alone whether it is different from G. pinnatifida, Bail. New South Wales specimens in the National Herbarium, Sydney, are: Mullumbimby, Brunswick River (W. Baeuerlen), and Casino, Upper Richmond River (Forester W. P. Pope).

  ― 55 ―


Plate 159: White Yiel Yiel. (Grevillea Hilliana, F.v.M.) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • A. Flowering twig
  • B. Flower bud.
  • C. Expanded flower, showing
    • (a) Four-lobed corolla with stamens.
    • (b) Pistil.
  • D. Portion of corolla-lobe with stamen (sessile antlier) in the concave laminæ.
  • E. Pedicel with pistil (corolla removed).
    • (a) Pedicel.
    • (b) Disc.
    • (c) Stipitate ovary.
    • (d) Lateral stigma.
  • F. Stigma.
  • G. Follicles.
  • H. Seed, winged all round.

The plate was drawn from specimens obtained from the Tweed River, with name of collector not available.

Supplementary Material Added With Volume 5

No. 155. Part XLIII.

Grevillea Hilliana, F.v.M.




Tree in the Government Domain, Sydney, near the old Technological Museum. It is being tested as an avenue tree for the Sydney district. Spikes of flowers cream-coloured.

  ― 56 ―

No. 156: Eucalyptus Bosistoana,


Bosisto's Box.

(Family MYRTACEÆ.)

Botanical description.

— Genus, Eucalyptus, already described. (See Part II, p. 33)

Botanical description.

— Species, E. Bosistoana, F.v.M., in Australasian Journ. Pharm., 1895.

Finally tall; branchlets slender, at first angular.

Leaves. — On rather short petioles, almost chartaceous, mostly narrow or elongate-lanceolar, somewhat falcate, very copiously dotted with translucent oil glandules, generally dull-green -on both sides, their lateral venules distant, much divergent, the peripheric venule, distinctly distant from the edge of the leaf, all faint.

Leaves. — of young Seedlings.-Roundish or ovate, scattered, stalked; umbels few-flowered, either axillar-solitary or racemosely arranged.

Peduncles. — Nearly as long as the umbels or oftener variously shorter, slightly or sometimes broadly compressed.

Pedicels. — Usually much shorter, rather thick and angular.

Tube of the Calyx. — Turbinate-semiovate, slightly angular.

Lid. — Fully as long as the tube, semiovate-hemispheric, often distinctly pointed.

Stamens. — All fertile, the inner filaments abruptly inflected before expansion; anthers very small, cordate or ovate-roundish, opening by longitudinal slits.

Style. — Short; stigma somewhat dilated.

Fruit. — Comparatively small, nearly semiovate, its rim narrow, its valves 5–6 or rarely 4, deltoid, totally enclosed, but sometimes reaching to the rim; sterile seeds very numerous, narrow or short; fertile seeds few, ovate, compressed, slightly pointed.

In swampy localities at Cabramatta and in some other places of the County of Cumberland, and also in the County of Camden (Rev. Dr. Woolls); near Mount Dromedary (Miss Bate); near Twofold Bay (L. Morton); near the Genoa (Barnard); on the summit of the Tantawanglo Mountains, and also near the Mitchell River (Howitt); between the Tambo and Nicholson Rivers (Schlipalius); near the StrezIecki Ranges (Olsen). The "Wul Wul" of the aborigines of the County of Dampier; the "Darjan" of the aborigines of Gippsland. Called locally by the colonists of New South Wales Ironbark Box-tree, and in some places also Grey Box-tree, which appellations indicate the nature of the wood and bark, though the latter may largely be shedding.

As richly oil-yielding, and also as exuding much kino, this tree is especially appropriate to connect therewith the name of Joseph Bosisto, Esq., C.M.G., who investigated many of the products of the Eucalypts, and gave them industrial and commercial dimensions.

This species, in its systematic affinities, is variously connected with E. odorata, E. siderophloia, E. hemiphloia, and E. drepanophylla. A fuller account of this valuable tree will early be given. (Op. cit.)

  ― 57 ―
Shortly after the publication of E. Bosistoana, I wrote to Baron von Mueller, pointing out that he had confused two trees in his description, namely, a "Grey Box" and an "Ironbark Box." He thanked me for the information, and stated he intended to publish further notes on the tree (as, indeed, he promised at the conclusion of the description), but his intention was frustrated by pressure of work, and subsequent death.

Botanical Name.

— Eucalyptus, already explained (see Part II, p. 34) Bosistoana, in honour of the late Joseph Bosisto, M.L.A., of Richmond, Melbourne. See my "Records of Victorian Botanists," in Vict. Nat., xxv, p. 103 (1908).

Vernacular Names.

— "Red Box." It goes most commonly under this name in the South Coast and Monaro, in reference to its pinkish colour when fresh.

"Of late it has received the local name of 'Grey Box' from the splitters and saw-millers." (A. W. Howitt, speaking of GippsIand.) "Yellow Box" of the County of Cumberland, N.S.W. (see this page and also p. 60). "Bastard Box" of the County of Cumberland, N.S.W. (see this page and also p. 60). It is called "Bastard Box," from a belief amongst soine timber men that it is a tree of which the true Yellow Box (melliodora) is one of the parents.

Aboriginal Name.

— I believe "Togoygora" to have been a name in use by aborigines in the County of Cumberland, N.S.W, according to observations by George Caley (1800-1810). See Agric. Gazette N.S.W., p. 989 (1903).


— (1) E. bicolor, Woolls (Contrib. Flora of Australia, 232), non A. Cunn.; see also p. 7 of Part xi of the "Critical Revision of the genus Eucalyptus."

In the Woollsian Herbarium, which is my property, there is a specimen in Dr. Woolls' handwriting, bearing the following label:—

"Yellow or bastard Box, half-barked when young, nearly smooth when full-grown. Hard wood. Height, 120 feet.' Cabramatta. E. bicolor."

On another occasion Dr. Woolls labelled a similar specimen from Cabramatta E. largiflorens.

There is no question as to the identity of this tree, even if his specimens did not make it quite clear. It is E. Bosistoana, F.v.M., is typical for the species, as determined by Mueller himself (Mueller first labelled this specimen E. odorata, Behr, and then E. Bosistoana), and the assumption that Woolls' determination of the tree as E. bicolor was correct has given rise to some curious mistakes. See my paper, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxvii, 519 (1902), for a full account of the matter.

(2.) E. odorata, Howitt, non Behr. See p. 58.


E. Bosistoana. — This tree has in many respects a superficial resemblance to E. melliodora, with which it was for a long time locally confounded in Gippsland....

  ― 58 ―
The difference between E. Bosistoana and E. melliodora was long apparent to me, from a careful comparison of the trees growing in the Mitchell River district, and especially from distinctions which have been apparent to the timber men there. The wood of this Eucalypt is much browner in colour than that of E. melliodora, and while the timber of the latter can very rarely be split into posts or rails, that of the former, although it is difficult to split "on the quarter," is, when once the log is opened, "backed off" with great ease. The principal differences upon which a rapid diagnosis may be made lie in the greatly superior height of E. Bosistoana, in its freer growth, the rhytiphloious (fibrous) bark, the smooth upper portion of the stem and limbs, and the somewhat larger fruit, with a narrow, compressed rim, and more deeply sunk orifice. Finally the outer stamens are all provided with fertile anthers, while those of E. melliodora are anantherous.

The timber of this tree is most durable, and is one of the most serviceable of the Eucalypts of Victoria, especially for work which is exposed to damp. (A. W. Howitt in Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., ii, 95, 1890-1.)

In the above passage, where E. Bosistoana occurs, there is E. odorata in the original, as Mueller made that species very comprehensive, and afterwards carved E. Bosistoana out of it.

Mr. Howitt subsequently wrote to me: "The greatest care should be taken to preserve this timber. for the reason that where works of construction require great durability and strength combined with length of material, there is no Victorian Eucalypt to compare with this."

"Red Box abounds in this district, and I am assured by persons who are competent to judge, equal, if not superior, to Ironbark for strength and durability. Recommended to be tested for sleepers and bridge-building." (The late Forest Ranger Benson, Wagonga, N.S.W., writing in 1893.)

I have a specimen of the same timber, called "Grey Box," from the Muckindary Bridge, Bombala, N.S.W., part of a pile nineteen years in the ground. It is quite sound, but has split badly.

The following, notes concerning the same timber I obtained verbally from Mr. A. R. Crawford, of Wingello, N.S.W.:—

"A splendid timber, no faults of any kind. Good for wheelwrighting, shafts, and all frame work."

Mr. Crawford further says that this is the best Box he has ever worked, and he has worked that of Hill Top, Orange, &c.

It will be observed that all these witnesses uniformly speak most highly of this timber.

It is a brown timber, drying paler. It is hard, and without gum veins. The tree has good clean stems and smooth branches.


— This tree grows to 200 feet, or in exceptional cases to perhaps 250 feet in height. (A. W. Howitt, loc. Cit.)


— So far as we know at present, it is confined to eastern New South Wales, from the Illawarra and the southern tableland in the north as far as North Gippsland (Bairnsdale district), Victoria in the south.

  ― 59 ―


It grows only in GippsIand, especially on limestone formations, commencing to the westward of Bairnsdale, and extending beyond Lake Tyers. Unfortunately, it grew principally upon lands which were required for settlement, and consequently, immense quantities of this tree have been ringbarked. It is still found growing on some private lands, on some unalienated Crown lands, in the neighbourhood of lake King, and in Cunninghame State Forest. (A. W. Howitt, in an unpublished report, 1895.)

I have observed a small colony of E. Bosistoana (E. odorata in original) growing in South Gippsland, near Four-mile Creek. The occurrence of this tree in the Miocene limestones of North Gippsland falls in with the statement made by Baron von Mueller that it occurs upon limestone areas at St. Vincent's Gulf.note (A. W. Howitt, loc. cil., p. 95.)

It grows principally on the Miocene limestones in the littoral tracts of North Gippsland. (A. W. Howitt in a letter to me.)


Following is a copy of a label by Oldfield (dated 1866), in Herb. Barbey-Boissier:— "Box-tree. — Tree, 160 feet; bark dark grey, spongy on trunk; limbs very white, soft to the touch,. like velvet. Stony Ranges, called Mountain Hut Range, near Eden, Twofold Bay." Later, the label bears the name E. leucoxylon in Oldfield's handwriting. The specimens are E. Bosistoana, F.v.M. There are similar specimens in Herb. Cant. labelled "No. IX Eucalyptus leucoxylon, F.M., 'Box-tree,' New South Wales, Hb. Oldfield," and, doubtless, in other herbaria.

This is the key, in my opinion, to the use of the name "Box" having been attached to E. leucoxylon. The name Box is never used in Australia for true E. leucoxylon, so far as my experience goes. If it is soused, it must be very rarely.

Bega district; also "Red, Grey, White Box," Cobargo (J. S. Allan); Mt. Dromedary (Miss Bate); " Grey Box," Noorooma (A. Langley); abounds in Wagonga district (F. R. Benson); "Grey Box" (J. V. de Coque); and "Red Box" (J. S. Allan), both in the Moruya district; Lower Araluen (J.H.M.); Milton; also "Yellow Box," West Dapto (R. H Cambage); "Box" or "White Box" of Razorback, 4 miles from Wingello (J.H.M. and J. L. Boorman); Marulan (A. Murphy). (E. Bosistoana, from Marulan, was provisionally determined by F.v.M. as E. bicolor many years ago.) Bullio to Wombeyan (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.).

Cabramatta district, County of Cumberland, occurring between Bankstown and the Cabramatta Railway Station, and also thence to Bringelly and Cabramatta (now Rossmore).

Woolls' Cabramatta specimens, already referred to, have large, plump flower buds; there are no fruits.

"There used to be some large trees of it near Bringelly, growing in a swampy place. Wood reddish-yellow and very tough when dry." (W. Woolls.)

  ― 60 ―
Then on specimens collected by J. L. Boorman at Bankstown, on 8th February, 1900, he and I made the following notes:—

"No. 13, 'Yellow Box.' Very tall trees, ribbony base. Clean grey tips from, 12 to 14 feet from ground. Leaves elliptic ovate, acuminate, of a glaucous colour. Timber yellow. Usually known as Bastard Box."

Subsequently, on 20th July, 1901, I went to Cabramatta with Mr. Bowman and interviewed Mr. Hoy, a local resident, in regard to the range of this tree in the district and compared the local Grey Box (E. hemiphloia) wtih it.


Plate 160: Bosisto's Box. (Eucalyptus Bosistoana, F.v.M.) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • A. Juvenile leaf, from a specimen collected by Oldfield in 1866 at Twofold Bay, N.S.W.
  • B. Juvenile leaf, from Wingello, N.S.W.
  • C. Flowering twig, Bankstown and Cabramatta, a few miles south of Sydney.
  • D. Buds, from Cabramatta.
  • E. Anther
  • F. Fruit
  • G. Unripe fruit, showing rim, from Wingello.
  • H. Fruit with exserted valves, from Bega, N.S.W.

Footnotes Issue No. 157.

  ― 61 ―

No. 157: Acacia prominens,

A. Gunn.

The Prominent Glanded Wattle.


Botanical description.

— Genus, Acacia. (See Part xv, p. 103.)

Botanical description.

— Species, A. prominens A. Cunn.

A. prominens (Cunningh. MMS. Loud. Hort. Brit, 407) Phyllodia divaricate, retrorsely falcate, linear-lanceolate, acute, 1-nerved, ending in a hooked mucrone, with a rather prominent gland on the upper margin at the base; heals of flowers in terminal and axillary racemes. Native of New South Wales. Phyllodia 1 1/2 inch long, and 1 1/2 line broad. (G. Don, Gen. Hist. of Dichlamydeous Plants, ii, 406, 1832.)

The reference in Loudon (1830) is

Evergreen greenhouse shrub 4 feet high. Flowers in February and June; colour of flowers yellow. A native of New Holland, introduced in 1824. Propagated from cuttings, likes sandy loamy and peat soils,

and is not adequate as a description of a species. Its date as a species is therefore 1832.

Under Bot. Mag. t. 3502 (1836) W. J. Hooker quotes Allan Cunningham's original description of Acacia prominens as follows:—

Acacia prominens; glabra, phyllodiis (sesquiuncialibus) lineari-lanceolatis acutis patentibus retrorsofalcatis rectisve uninervibus tenuissime ciliatis, mucrone subuncinato terminatis, margine antico versús basin uniglanduloso, glandulâ leviter elevatâ, racemis terminalibus axillaribusve 6-10-cephalis phyllodio pauló longioribus, capitulis (in racemo) solitariis geminisve pedicello brevioribus, floribus quinquepartitis, petalis ovato-oblongis subacuminatis, stylo staminibus parum longiore.

It is taken from Allan Cunningham's MSS. Journal dated 1817.

Hooker then describes it in the following words:—

A tall, slender shrub, often 10 feet high, of erect growth, numerously branched, the branches being smooth, greenish, and slightly angular.

Phyllodia copious alternate for the most part, 1 1/2 inches in length and 2 1/2 to 3 lines in breadth, spreading, linear-lanceolate, acute, mucronated, mucro rather hooked, towards the apex often retrorse]y falcate, with several slightly-marked veins diverging from the midrib, on the upper edge near the base is a rather prominent gland.

Flowers golden-yellow, very fragrant, formed in axillary and terminal racemes, each raceme having from six to ten heads, generally longer than the phyllodia.

Heads many-flowered, distinct, solitary, or in pairs.

Pedicels patent, very smooth, longer than the heads, having at the bases short, brown bracts.

Calyx very short, five-parted.

Petals five, ovate-oblong, subacute, erect or slightly spreading.

Stamens numerous, shorter than the style.

Stigma simple.

  ― 62 ―
He then goes on to give the following account of it:—

A charming conservatory shrub, native of New South Wales, where it inhabits barren forestgrounds, in the immediate vicinity of the Nepean River; and although it may, in its native regions, be truly said to be, like Goldsmith's village thorn, "unprofitably gray," no one caring to receive it into his garden, it nevertheless seldom fails, even there, in the month of September, when decked with blossoms, to commend itself to the notice and admiration of the passing, way-worn colonist, not less by the extreme richness and profusion of its golden flowers, than by the delicious fragrance they diffuse around. It has been several years at Kew, where it flowers annually in the months of spring; and our acknowledgments are due to Mr. Aiton for the opportunity now afforded us of publishing a figure of it.

At the end he gives a description of A. fimbriata, A. Cunn., a species which has been confused with A. prominens.

Then Bentham redescribes the species in the follovring words:—

A tall shrub, glabrous and usually glaucous, with angular branchlets.

Phyllodia from linear-lanceolate to oblong-falcate, when narrow nearly those of A. Iinifolia, but not so decidedly ciliate, more acute and the marginal gland further from the base, and passing from that to nearly those of A. Iunata, but always much thinner than the latter, with the pinnate veins as well as the gland more conspicuous, mostly 1 to 1 1/2 inch long, from 2 lines broad in the narrow form to 3, 4, or even 5 in the broad ones.

Racemes about as long as the phyllodia, with very small globular heads of about 8 to 10 or rarely 12 to 15 small flowers, mostly 5-merous.

Calyx very short, broadly lobed.

Petals smooth, or nearly so.

Pod very flat, 2 to 3 inches long when perfect, 3, 4, or rarely 5 lines broad.

Seeds longitudinal along the centre, the last fold of the funicle thickened into a fleshy clavate lateral aril, the other folds very small. (B.Fl. ii, 371.)

Mr. R. T. Baker gives a figure of this species in Proc. linn. Soc. N.S. W., xvi, 572.

He (Op. Cit., p. 573) usefully supplements Bentham's description with the following remarks:—

It is described as "a tall shrub," but it is very often to be seen over 20 feet, and not uncommonly exceeding 30 feet in height, with a diameter in proportion.

The phyllodes often extend to 2 inches, particularly in plants found in the northern districts; about 1 1/2 inch in those in the neighbourhood of Sydney, and 1 inch in southern examples.

The racemes are given by Bentham as "about as long as" the phyllodes, but I find them almost always longer in the living state. They shrink very much in drying.

The pod ("neglected by collectors in the majority of specimens gathered ") can scarcely be said to be "very flat"; it is light warm brown in colour, glabrous and rugose, measuring 1 to 3 inches long and 1/4 to 1 inch broad.

The seeds are at first transverse, but in some cases oblique and longitudinal along, the centre; they appear to change their position prior to falling.

The coloured plate (Bot. Mag., vol. lxiii, No. 3502) in no way assists to identify the species.

I will supplement Mr. Baker's observations by saying that it attains the height of over 70 feet (measured). While agreeing to the extent that Boll Mag. t. 3608 is not a very good representation, the characteristic gland is present. The flowers are usually about twelve in the head.

Botanical Name.

— Acacia, already explained (see Part XV, p. 104); prominens, Latin, prominent, in allusion to the conspicuous marginal gland of the phyllodes.

  ― 63 ―

Vernacular Names.

— I propose the name "Prominent Glanded Wattle," in spite of myself, for I have only heard it called "Sally," because of its drooping habit, and "Silver Wattle" because of its glaucous foliage, names which have been applied to scores of Wattles with equal appropriateness or the reverse.

Aboriginal Name.

— I know of none.


— This is a species which has given rise to a surprising amount of confusion. It has been more or less confused with at least three species.

(1) Acacia Lunata, F.v.M. non Sieb., "F. Mueller refers it (A. prominens) to A. lunata, describing the pod very accurately; but that is not the fruit of the true A. lunata, which has always the seed lying close to the upper suture, not in the centre of the pod." (Bentham in B.Fl. ii, 371.) Mueller referred some indubitable specimens of A. prominens (A. Cunn.) to A. lunata (Sieb.), and Bentham followed him. These have caused great confusion in herbaria. In Part XLIV I shall figure A. lunata, Sieb., and, I trust, clear up all difficulty in this particular matter.

In Mueller's "Key to the System of Victorian Plants," i (1887-1888) and ii (1885), A. prominens will be found synonymised under A. lunata.

(2.) Acacia fimbriata, A. Cunn. (see B.Fl. ii, 371), has also been confused with A. prominens as a synonym. I trust that the figures and descriptions of A. fimbriata in Part XLII of this work will render confusion impossible in the future.

(3.) A. linifolia, Willd., var. prominens, F.v.M. Herb. In Mueller's "Second Census" (1889) it does not appear, but it was included by Mueller under A. linifolia, Willd., as a variety (e.g., prominens). Bentham also contributed to this view by saying (B.FI. ii, 371): "This species (prominens) may prove to be a broadleaved variety of linifolia." And, again, under A. Iinifolia, he speaks of "The broadleaved forms of this species, with the margins less ciliated (really A. fimbriata, A. Cunn., as I have shown in Part XLII of this work. J.H.M.), or not perceptibly so, connect it with the following, A. prominens."

I trust that the illustrations and notes concerning A. Iinifolia, Willd., given in Part XLlI, will render confusion with A. linifolia impossible in the future.


— Note the prominent glands on the phyllodia.


This is called "Grey" and "Black Wattle" near Sydney, "Silver Wattle" and "Sally" near Gosford, but dealers will not have it, and it hardly pays to cut up and pass with better bark. A sample of a black bark, stained, leopardlike, with whity-green patches, and bearing lichens, yielded the writer 18.03 per cent. of tannic acid and 42.35 per cent. of extract. It was from Penrith, N.S.W.

A sample from Penshurst, Illawarra line, near Sydney, gave the author (Proc. R.S. N.S.W., 1888, p. 269) 39.98 per cent. of extract and 14.42 of tannic acid. Eeight of tree, 10 to 15 feet; diameter, 1 1/2 to 2 inches; collected September, 1887; analysed August, 1868. A light-coloured bark, very thin, of the thickness of stout brown paper, and reminding one strongly of that of A. longifolia.

  ― 64 ―

A very promising-looking bark obtained from the same locality in February, and analysed the same month, gave 19.75 per cent. of tannic acid and 46.95 per cent. of extract. It is fairly thick, pale in colour, has little fibre, and its low percentage of tannic acid is certainly disappointing. I doubt whether a finer sample of this bark is obtainable; if this surmise is correct, the value of this bark is fixed at under 20 pet cent. of tannic acid.


— Tough and pale-coloured, used far axe-handles in the Gosford district according to Mr. Andrew Hurphy.


— This Wattle is really one of the largest of Australian species, according to a measurement (76 feet) given to me by Mr. Andrew Murphy of a tree felled by him at Narara, near Gosford.


— Bentham (B.Fl. ii, 371) refers this species to New South Wales ("Blue Mountains, Caley, A. Cunningham, and others"), and also doubtfully to South Australia.

Mueller ("Second Census") refers A. linifolia, Willd. (which included, according to his view, A. prominens as a variety), to Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland.

The properly authenticated range of A. prominens is County of Cumberland, north of the County of Camden, and nearly to Newcastle on the north, i.e., to New South Wales only.

In my "Wattles and Wattle-barks," 3rd edn., p. 80, I have the following note:—

A specimen from trees 15 to 30 feet high, and having a diameter of from 4 to 8 inches, was collected in February, 1890, at Krackenback Mountain, Jindabyne, N.S.W., and analysed January, 1891. It was found to contain 11 per cent. tannic acid and 29.75 per cent. extract. This bark is deceptive in appearance, being smooth, breaking short, with little fibre, and altogether a fair-looking bark.

On the Snowy Mountains it occurs at elevations from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. It is an eastern form found principally in the coast districts.

These Snowy Mountains localities are several hundreds of miles from all other authenticated localities, which may be briefly described as Sydney and Newcastle districts. The Snowy Mountain specimens that I have seen are in immature bud only and are, therefore, doubtful, but they become interesting because perhaps similar specimens have caused A. prominens to be recorded for Victoria.

Furthermore, A. prominens has been recorded from Queensland. Certainly A. fimbriata occurs there, as I have shown in Part XLII, but I am not aware that the true A. prominens occurs in the northern State, and the record should be struck out until it is confirmed.

The record "South Australia?" in the Flora Australiensis should also be struck out. In a word, I do not think we have evidence at present to look upon A. prominens as occurring in any State other than New South Wales.

  ― 65 ―

New South Wales localities (authenticated by material in the National Herbarium, Sydney) are:—

Mulgoa, on the banks of the Nepean (R. H. Cambage and J.H.M.). The type came from the vicinity of the Nepean River, where it exists to this day, though it is rare in the vicinity of the old Emu crossing of the Nepean, owing to settlement.

Belmore, just south of Sydney. Taken from a tree 2 feet 6 inches in girth. A few years ago there were a number of trees in this locality much larger than the one noted (A. A. Hamilton).

Kogarah and Hurstville, just south of Sydney (J.H. Camfield and E. Betche); Gosford (J.J. Fletcher).

"Sally-Wattle." From tree 76 feet high; timber used for axe-handles; Narara, near Gosford (A. Murphy).


— This is a beautiful species, formerly the glory of the more southern Illawarra Sydney suburbs, but now comparatively rare owing to the progress of settlement. It is well worthy of cultivation.


Plate 161: Prominent Glanded Wattle. (Acacia prominens, A. Cunn.) Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • A. Flowering twig.
  • B. Flower-head.
  • C. Individual bud and bract.
  • D. Flower.
  • E. Bract.
  • F. Flower opened out, showing
    • (a) Calyx.
    • (b) Corolla.
    • (c) Pistil (stamens removed).
  • G. Pods.
  • H. Seed.
  • J. Portion of phyllode with marginal prominent gland, which protrudes outwardly from the margin.

  ― 66 ―

No. 158: Cinnamomum virens,

R. T. Baker.

Native Camphor Laurel.

(Family LAURACEÆ.)

Botanical description.

— Genus, Cinnamomum. (See Part XLII, p. 35.)

Botanical description.

— Species, C. virens, R.T. Baker, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxii, 282 (1897), with a plate (t. 13).

A tree about 90 feet high, and up to 2 feet in diameter.

Leaves opposite or occasionally alternate, rigid, coriaceous, shining above, green and glabrous on both sides, the reticulations prominent on the underside, lanceolate-acuminate, either cuneate or rounded at the base, margins nerve-like, 4 to 6 inches long, triplinerved but not prominently so, petiole rarely exceeding 1/4 inch.

Panicles opposite in the axils of the upper leaves, bearing a few flowers in the raceme shorter than the leaves, slightly pubescent.

Peclicels the length of the calyx.

Perianth-tube about 1 line, segments or lobes 2 lines long, constricted for about half its length so as to give it a calyx-like appearance as soon as the ovules are fertilised.

Stamens shorter than the lobes.

Stigma very slightly expanded.

Berry 6 lines long, 4 broad, resting on an enlarged perianth-tube measuring across the top almost 5 lines, shining.

Pedicels enlarged under the fruit, the whole resembling some Quercus fruits and cups, such as Q. pedunculata, &c. (R. T. Baker, loc. cit.)

It differs from C. Oliveri in its foliage, the uniform colour of the upper and lower surfaces of its leaves giving it a distinctive character from those of that species, which are dark-green coloured on the upper surface and whitish below. The neuration found in most other Cinnamomums is slightly developed in this species, although wanting in C. Oliveri. Some specimens preserve a ligbt green colour, others darken a little, but the colour is always distinct from C. Oliveri, Bail., C. ovalifolium, Wight, C. Tamala, Nees, and C. Zeylanicum, Nees; the leaves are also thicker, more rigid, and less fragrant than those of C. Oliveri.

It differs from C. Tamala, Nees, the only Australian representative of this genus recorded in B. Fl. v, 303 (allowing for all variations), in the shape, colour, size and venation of the leaf, as well as in the characters of the stigma; from C. ovalifolium, Wight, in its lanceolate, unicoloured, glabrous leaves, which are also less coriaceous than those of that species.

The perianth is very much more enlarged and thickened tban in C. Oliveri, Bail., which has an entire and thin-edged enlarged perianth-tube, whilst this one appears to show rudimentary lobes. The fruits also are larger than those of C. Oliveri, Bail., and very shining.

  ― 67 ―
F. M. Bailey (in Bot. Bull. v, p. 25) referers to a probably new species of Cinnamomum under the name of C. propinquum, but I do not think that my specimens can belong to that species, as the branchlets are not 4-angled, neither are the leaves ovate-lanceolate; they are nearly all above 3 inches long, and the under surface is not whitish but green, the same as the upper surface, with the reticulations distinct. (R. T. Baker, loc. cit.)

Botanical Name.

— Cinnamomum, already explained (see Part XLII, p. 35); virens, Latin, youthful and green: hence a bright clear green, referring to the leaves.

Vernacular Name.

— Mr. Baker calls it "Native Camphor Laurel"; it is not specially appropriate; on the other hand, it is as good as most names for our brush trees. He also quotes the name "Copal tree," on account of the high polish of the leaves and fruit. I do not like that name, as the Copals belong to a totally different group of plants found in non-Australian countries, and it is very objectionable.


— Some of them quite triplinerved. They display a good deal of variation in the venation.


— "The bark is thin, non-aromatic, and a distillation of 60 lb. gave very little oil." (R.T. Baker.)


— The remarks on the timber of C. Oliveri, are also applicable to this species (ibid.)

Mr. G. Tingcombe says it is a very tough timber. It is one of a very large number of brush timbers, of whose properties we know nothing, or next to nothing, and I only hope we shall know more of them before they become so scarce as to be of no commercial importance.


— "Not a tall tree, of small dimensions in the Comboyne." (G. Tingcombe.) A large tree as originally described.


— New South Wales. Going north, we have it from Mullumbimby, on the Brunswick River, and Murwillumbah, Tweed River. (R. A. Campbell.)

Its most southern recorded locality, so far, is Comboyne Brush. (G. Tingcombe.) This is just north of the Manning River.

It is a native of the Northern Rivers of New South Wales. It occurs from the Comboyne to the Tweed, and it would be nothing short of a miracle if it did not occur in Queensland.

Mr. Baker says it was found by Mr. Bauerlen on the Richmond River, at Tintenbar, Dunoon, and Goonellah. I have also seen it from him from Alstonville.

  ― 68 ―


Plate 162: Cinnamomum virens, R.T. Baker. Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

  • A. Flowering twig.
  • B. Flower.
  • C. Flower, opened out, showing
    • (a) Perianth segments.
    • (b) Stamens, outer row, introrse anthers.
    • (c) Stamens, inner row, extrorse anthers.
    • (d) Staminodia, outer row.
    • (e) Staminodia, inner row.
    • (f) Pistil.
  • D. Perianth segment with stamen.
  • E. Stamen, front view with staminodia at base.
  • F. Stamen, back view with staminodia at base.
  • G. Pistil, half immersed in the perianth-tube.
  • H. Fruit.

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