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Appendix Part LX: Tree Planting For Shade And Ornament in New South Wales, With Especial Reference To Municipal Requirements.

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The subject is a vast one, and naturally falls into two divisions:—

1. How to plant and tend a tree.

2. The kind of trees to plant.

The second division just as naturally falls into two sections:—

(a) Native Trees.

(b) Exotic Trees.

How to Plant and Tend a Tree.

There is an old joke that the mustard manufacturer lives not by the condiment people eat, but by what they leave on their plates. To parody this, the nurseryman lives by the plants that people kill, and far less by those they succeed in growing. Plants are killed by drought, floods, heat, cold and accidents of all kinds, but the primary causes of the deaths of the vast majority of those planted are avoidable, and spring from ignorance and neglect. Where a man raises his own plants the probability is that he has studied the conditions of plant-life, and he usually succeeds with them as they grow older.

The loss of young plant-life is appalling, and let us see if we can do something to reduce it. Let me take a number of suggestions seriatim:—

1. Employ a skilled tree-planter. — I am primarily addressing those who have the control of the planting of trees in streets and parks. I am quite aware that some amateurs can arrive at a considerable degree of excellence in gardening operations, but public bodies have not exceptional and gifted amateurs at their disposal, and they should go into the market and secure the best skilled labour available. I have been often shocked to learn of the unskilled and careless men to whom local authorities have entrusted tree-planting. If a man's watch gets out of repair he does not take it to a handy-man. I am quite aware that some local authorities have not work (or rather in these enlightened days I ought to say will not see that there is work) for a skilled gardener the whole year round. In the age of enlightenment it will be found that the gardener of the municipality has more to show for a certain expenditure of money in the adornment of district them any other kind of workman. But, until wiser counsels prevail, at least let the planting be done by a gardener, and let him have a retaining fee to do any necessary work to the trees, at least during their period of youth. If we neglect some symptom of our own health, that the ignorant may deem trifling, it may become serious and may even result in death. The wise citizen seeks skilled advice in time, and, what is more, he follows it. So, in regard to a tree, a


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gardener may often save its life if called in in time. Let us have no more instances of road navvies being interrupted in their good work of roadmaking to attend to the wants of trees.

2. Plant only healthy young trees. — This should be an axiom, but I have often seen miserable trees planted out that no professional gardener would ever plant out if he were a free agent. I allude to pot-bound plants, to plants suffering from insect or fungus pests, or indicating debility in some way, perhaps the result of delay or illtreatment since they left the nursery. Then accidents sometimes happen to the stems or roots of young trees before they are planted out, and the gardener always performs the necessary pruning operations in such cases before planting. Give the plant a good start. It will have the battle of life to fight, and do not let it enter into the contest maimed.

3. Trees must be planted at the proper time. — In New South Wales the vast majority of trees are planted out during the months of June, July and August. With deciduous trees, i.e., those which lose their leaves, such is planes, oaks, elms, it is absolutely necessary that the planting should take place when the leaves are all off, and when the tree is quite at rest. This is, of course, in the winter. The vast majority of evergreen trees are also most safely planted during the winter months. As a rule evergreens are sent out in pots, but sometime the ball of earth is tied up in canvas, such plants having been dug up open root out of the nursery. Plants in pots can usually be planted out with a maximum of safety -that is to say, with ordinary care, there is a minimum of failure in the case of such plants; but, in the desire for good large plants, it must never be forgotten that a very real danger is that the plant may be pot-bound. There the skill of the professional gardener comes in. He would at once advise which of a certain consignment of pot plants are worth planting out.

I have alluded to the fact that some trees may be planted out at seasons other than the winter. For example, during the autumn anything in pots can be planted out. But in this case we must have two plantings, for the deciduous trees can never be planted out except in winter. And, if the plant be in a pot, it may often be transplanted late in the spring, and even in the summer, but this lateness always handicaps the plant, which should get accustomed to its new surroundings before or during the winter months.

In some places there are only two seasons, the wet and dry. In such areas you can only safely plant when the rain comes. But get the ground ready, so that when the time comes to plant, the planting may not be delayed by work that should have been finished previously.

4. Large holes, with drainage well provided for. — If you will not arrange for this, do not go any farther-abandon tree-planting. If the soil be good and deep, which is very rarely the case in the Sydney district, it is best to plough and subsoil, if a row of trees be desired: the soil is disturbed and the drainage is attended to. But in the vast majority of cases separate holes have to be dug. Holes should be square, and, wherever possible, each side should be 8 feet long. The depth, should be not less than


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3 feet. If rock be present, it must be gadded or blasted out for as great a depth as funds will allow, for it must be remembered that the presence of rock, especially solid or continuous rock, indicates very adverse conditions to tree life. Then when the proper depth has been reached, give a parting shot to stir up the rock a bit, leave a good depth of rubble at the bottom of the hole, then place a layer of pieces of rock of smaller size, and fill up with the best soil that can be procured.

But before filling up, drainage must be secured. With holes in the solid rock this, of course, means more blasting, for a channel must be made for the water to flow away, since nothing is more deleterious to the fine roots of trees than to let them chill or drown in water.

If we have sandy soil, this must be dug out for as big an area as funds will allow, and where there is a hard-pan a few feet below the surface (which is often the case), this must be removed. Sometimes this hard-pan is only of medium hardness, but it may contain much ferruginous matter in solution, and is sometimes even acid, and deadly to young plants. Now, the expense of providing good soil becomes serious, for usually sandy and sandstone land is at a considerable distance from good soil, and the cost of cartage is therefore very great. There is an old Latin proverb to the effect that you can only get nothing out of nothing, and if you think you can cheat a tree, you will be very much mistaken. You might just as well think that it would not matter to your horse whether you gave him nutritious food or not. Remember that the, work of a gardener is largely buried in the earth, and that the Plant will explain to the world the condition of affairs below the ground level. When a tree looks sickly or stunted, depend upon it that the fundamental cause, in the vast majority of cases, is bad drainage or poverty of soil.

Trees in paved towns are often planted near the edge of the footpath, and they should be planted as far from it as can be conveniently arranged. But a matter of the greatest importance is to see that the kerbstone nearest the tree is as shallow as the safety of the pavement will permit. You might just as well put the tree in a pot as to force its roots against a deep kerbstone.

5. Plenty of fairly good soil. — I have already dealt with this in the preceding section, but it is of such paramount importance that I bring it forward, for special reiteration. If you expect a tree to flourish it must have something to feed on in the way of good soil. Only in very rare cases should manure be added to soil at the planting, and when this is deemed to be necessary, the manure should be well rotted. Where a tree is suffering from debility, the digging in of a, little bone-dust often gives the necessary stimulus in the direction of health. It is oftenest necessary to give trees a little nutriment in towns, especially where the tree has been planted in a pot-hole in hard or rocky soil.Most town trees are, however, supposed to do without any soil nutriment. In fairly good soil, and where the tree, can spread out its roots and live its life, the question of manure, is wholly unnecessary, and indeed, it has been shown, as the result of experiment, that the timber crop is the least exhausting to the soil Of any crop whatever.




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6. Stake properly. — Remember that the young tree will not be anchored for many a day. That different situations are of different degrees of shelter. That different soils have varying capacity for anchorage, and facilitate the development of roots in different degrees. Even when there is little danger of the tree being actually blown out of the ground, some trees have a greater tendency than others to heel over or to deflect from that uprightness which is so admired in a tree. In a word, staking is necessary during the early years. Such staking should be adequate, and the best time to do this is prior to planting the young trees, in order to avoid possible damage to the roots, a contingency likely to occur when the stakes are driven into the ground alter the tree is planted. Stakes should be of durable, strong timber, should be driven well into the ground, usually vertically., and the size of the stake should vary with the size of the plant.

Sometimes the stake is changed, two or three times, as growth proceeds. Usually the stake is driven home vertically, but some gardeners prefer the less neat-looking oblique method of staking, where the stem and the stake touch each other at one point only. With vertical staking two or more ties can be attached to the stake, and thus the young tree has support for a large portion of its length, but there is some danger, of the stake interfering with the root-system, and also with the base of the stem.

7. Attend to the state of the stake-ties if necessary. — The great curse of gardening in New South Wales is what I may term the Micawber system- the "thank-heaven-that's-settled" frame of mind; the neglect to make adequate provision for maintenance. How many men start well with a garden. But they forget that in forming a garden well they have only done one portion of their work. What would one think of a man who had a horse in good condition given him, one which was well bred and altogether desirable, and who would say he will cost nothing for maintenance? And is not this what thousands of our citizens are doing to-day? They are in charge of trees or own gardens, and expect these living things to flourish and be a source of pleasure to beholders, and all this without further expenditure of labour or money, or both. Let us apply this specifically to stake- ties. I have seen plants securely tied at the time of planting, and death has resulted from these very ties, which should have been an aid and not a torture and danger to the young plant. This has happened in two ways -from insect pests and from throttling. Many insects are constantly on the lookout for shelter to lay their eggs and for other purposes. Tree-loving beetles and moths walk up or fly up the stem, and find comfortable shelter in the stake-ties. These may become a mass of insect eggs or larvæ. Frequently beetles pierce the trunk just at the ties, so that the ties, instead of being a protection, are an absolute detriment. Then by having strong ties, which the tree cannot snap, as its trunk expands, the natural growth of the tree is impeded; it is cinctured, early flowering is induced and the tree, if it lives at all, has a short life. I have known wire to be used for stake-ties, which, of course, cuts into the stem. There is only one remedy for this, and that is the dismissal of the man guilty of it. As regards stake-ties of a more yielding material they should be renewed at least once a year, and the old ones carefully collected and burnt.




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Of course, trees are liable to attacks by fungi and insects. In the United States costly and bulky appliances are in use for the purpose of fumigating and spraying big trees. I am not, however, in favour of spraying, as a rule. The best spraying appliances are the axe and mattock, together with a nice warm fire. The continued presence of parasites on a tree spells debility. The tree was sick to begin with, or it has met with accidents, or it is worn out, or in poor or ill-drained land, or is overcrowded. The obvious remedy is to seek the cause of the debility, which enables the parasite to get a hold. If that is not coped with, the parasite will pay more frequent visits until death results. Use spraying and fumigating methods simply as adjuncts to the treatment of the fundamental cause, which is dragging the sick tree down to become a prey to fungus and insect vermin. In the same way the physician uses lotions for skin diseases, only to palliate distressing symptoms. He properly says that to effect a cure we must get at the cause; we must improve the general health, and so he inculcates a course of treatment that he looks upon as getting at the root of things. And that is just the policy of the wise tree-doctor.

Smooth-barked trees are very liable to attack by wood-boring beetles. The stringybark trees of our forest are supplied by nature with a thick blanket which prevents beetles attacking them too easily. The smooth-barked plane is very vulnerable, and hence stake-ties for them are very dangerous things.

They are also liable to attacks by a little curculio beetle, which riddles them. I have seen the trunks of planes girdled with a band of sticky fly-paper to intercept these little beetles. But, obviously, such a method is only capable of application in places where there is very little dust. It certainly could not be applied in city streets.

8. White Ants. — Most people have observed an official tapping the wheels of railway carriages of express trains with light hammers, when such, trains arrive at a station, and are proceeding to a further stage on their journey. This is a matter of precaution, as a flaw in a wheel might result in disaster. In like manner the staffs of our public parks are constantly inspecting the trees to see if a branch is too top-heavy, or has cracked., or whether P. trunk is suffering from white-ant (a very common pest) or decay, or whether it is likely to heel over with the wind after soaking rain. Numbers of branches and not a few trees are annually removed simply because they are a possible source of danger. The writer has no intention of hearing the verdict of a coroner's jury, "The deceased was killed by a limb of a tree which fell upon him, and the dangerous condition of said limb should have been ascertained by the Director of the Botanic Gardens, whom we therefore find guilty of manslaughter." The public may be assured that special precautions are taken on their behalf, and such precautions sometimes necessitate hard pruning and even removal of trees which appear healthy to a superficial observer. Here let me refer my readers to a very useful paper, "Diseases of Shade and Ornamental Trees," by B.T. Galloway and. A.F. Woods, the "Year-book of Agriculture, U.S.A.," for 1896, pp. 237-254.




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9. Attend to the watering, should it be necessary, at the proper time. — Young trees should have a good sousing at the time of planting, and the settlement of the soil which results should be partly made up by the addition of a little good soil. It is best not to make the level of the soil around the newly planted tree equal to that of the surrounding land, but to leave a little depression, so that moisture may find its way to the roots of the young tree. Bearing in mind that a young tree is a baby tree, it naturally requires a little extra care during its early days. Amongst other requirements it is necessary to see that its roots are kept moist, particularly during a period of westerly winds. When the tree is watered, a good soaking is necessary. for the application of a little drop of water does more harm than good.

Plants breathe by means of their leaves, which have quite a large number of breathing holes. These holes get clogged up by the fine dust common in cities, although most leaves possess contrivances to minimise the danger from choking. This dust should be washed off as frequently as possible, and nothing is better than water, sprayed as finely as possible. No tree can live a vigorous life if choked with dust, and trees in the forest are not subjected to this drawback. One of the special disabilities under which trees in towns suffer is caused by the fact that the soil around the stem is often trampled hard, or is covered with asphalt or other impervious paving material. How is it possible for the rain. to get to the tree and help it to live its life? Broad tree-guards protect the tree, in this respect, but the most usual method is to have iron gratings. Usually, however, the gratings are too small; they should be not less than 5 by 4 feet. The pattern of the grating, is of very great importance. The holes to admit the rain should be as large as possible, and the lines of the casting should be as narrow as possible at the surface of the pavement. In other words, every drop of rain which falls on the grating should percolate through. Different patterns of gratings are made, but I hope that public bodies will keep the main idea in view, and reject any grating which intercepts much of the rain.

10. Attend to pruning, if necessary. — I have already incidentally referred to root-pruning, necessary in consequence of injuries in transit. Roots are sometimes pruned because the trees are pot-bound, and for other reasons, but unless the tree is a very valuable one, I would put a tree which requires much root-pruning on to a good hot fire.

Some people think that only roses and fruit, trees require pruning, but street and park trees sometimes require this, and the operation should always be entrusted to a first-class man. Sometimes a branch becomes too heavy, and hence in the interests of safety it requires treatment. Then in windy localities trees may get too much of a top, and so they are carefully thinned, so that when that unexpected gale comes along it will simply blow through the branches, and not fell the tree or blow its he ad off. Then trees require pruning for the removal of puny or diseased branches or to induce symmetry of growth. Sometimes trees are pruned to secure a more compact growth in lieu of spindliness. If a tree be healthy to begin with, and it be planted in good soil, with sufficient moisture and shelter, it can live its life vigorously and healthily. A healthy, symmetrical tree is a beautiful object, and rarely requires interference. The knife and saw of the pruner are usually to counteract defects, the result of debility at the time of planting, overcrowding, accidents during growth, or uncongenial soil and surroundings. Pruning is a requirement of civilisation amongst tree growths, and is a regrettable necessity. If trees grew naturally they would require no pruning. In the same way, if a man has a healthy constitution and is so fortunate as to escape accidents, he does not require the knife of a surgeon.

Trees, particularly in streets, live an existence almost as artificial as the remainder of the dwellers in towns. To begin with a clean stem is necessary, so as not to interfere with foot and wheeled traffic. To secure this a certain amount of pruning is required.

Some trees, such as figs and many deciduous trees, may be very freely cut without endangering their life, but others, such as the Myrtaceæ, including our gums and Tristania and many other evergreen trees, must be pruned with care, and always when the tree is at rest, i.e., with no flush of new growth at. the top.

Noble Approaches to our City Parks.

Every main park entrance should, if possible, be indicated by a plaza as spacious as can be contrived. A plaza is an index to the breadth of view of the citizens. Let us contemplate the approaches of some of our parks. Some of them remind us of a precious jewel in an unworthy setting. The Centennial Park, for example, is a glorious natural depression with high land all round it and within its area, enabling one in one coup d'oeil to view a landscape which is a dream of beauty, a balm to jaded nerves, and inspiration to the aesthete, be he poet or artist.

But the approaches, with one exception, are petty.

We are improving the approaches to the Outer Domain and Inner Domain (Government House Grounds) by plazas, and the above areas and also the Garden Palace Grounds, by an encircling belt of palm-bordered parterres. With these improvements Macquarie-street will, in a few years, be the finest street in Australia.

Let us not further neglect the very important matter of better settings to our parks.

The Policy of Connecting Avenues between our various Parks.

We should have a shady walk or drive from the Circular Quay to Centennial Park and beyond, and back to the starting point by a different route. At the present time we have some dusty road, then some park, then a bit of tree-lined road, then very much more dusty road. When we have the necessary leisure to enjoy it we ought to be able to make long journeys under aesthetic conditions. It is too much to expect that all business premises and residences shall have park-like surroundings, but the continuity of our pleasaunces can be more attended to if we set about it.




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This matter is akin to the problem of constructing adequate arterial roads of approach to Sydney. Study a map for a moment and see how inadequate and even petty our main roads are. Some of them have the same direction as the track of a perplexed insect. But here I am encroaching on the domain of the professional townplanner, and my work is only a subordinate part.

Trees in Parks.

The planting of a park can only be touched upon at this place, in a general way In its laying out, the indigenous trees should be conserved if possible. I do not say at any price. Some trees should be cultivated for the purpose, mainly, of giving shelter to the public. The problem of producing beautiful landscape effects is not one suitable for discussion here, except in very general terms, for one cannot go into essential details except with a particular block of land in view. Trees in a public park must have their lower branches removed or children will break them down, and improper characters will use them as places of concealment.

In a private park we see noble specimens of trees, some of them with branches close to the ground. When for public park purposes we prune them, we not only seriously detract from their beauty, but in the case of some trees, particularly conifers, we inflict great injury upon them from a physiological point of view. Trees often require a little judicious pruning, either because of accidents to branches or to prevent branches becoming unduly heavy and tearing themselves away during winds or by their sheer weight. Then we require special precautions in regard to the danger from trees in a public park, particularly in those used by large numbers of people. I have touched upon this subject already.

It is the duty of a park officer to frequently inspect his trees to see if any of them present symptoms which will cause them to be dangerous to the public. Are they getting top-heavy? Are the branches or the trunks becoming unsound? The pruner and the axe-man must be ever on the alert, especially as, with all our care, trees sometimes fall without warning. In such cases examination of the roots or inner portion of the trunk reveals insidious disease, caused either by fungus or by insect pests.

A tree is like a man, in that it progresses to maturity and then commences to decay. Thus we have the active growth of youth, a period of maturity, and a period of senile decay. It would be very desirable if trees could long remain at the period of their best development. But no, they grow out of hand, and have to be cut back, and a common symptom of incipient decay, a dead branch, has to be cut out. I want to emphasise the point that a tree will not remain stationary.

The climbing of trees by boys is a very serious cause of their injury, and even destruction. If a boy intends to climb a tree, one cannot, in practice, prevent him, but he can be hindered by tree guards, and also by loosely twisting barbed wire around the first fork.




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While many trees in our genial climate grow more rapidly than they do in Europe, one must not lose sight of the fact that they attain maturity quicker, end then show signs of failure. In applying remedies to unhealthy trees, one must carefully distinguish between those which are suffering from the effects of accident or from a passing, ailment, and those in which the real cause is senile decay.

The question of the establishment of wind-breaks is a matter of importance to all custodians of parks which are not blessed with a sheltered situation. This is one of the most difficult problems those in charge of parks have to face, The problem is to establish the first line of defence, which in its turn, may protect the second, and so on. Each man must work out the problem for himself, and he, of course, considers the contour of the land, and the direction and force of the prevailing winds. Those interested in the matter may be inclined to study the methods by which wind-breaks are being established at the Centennial Park, a park with the poorest of soils.

In planting we want to look ahead and not overcrowd, as this does not allow the development of good specimens, and people object to the thinning out process. It is born in a man not to like to cut down a tree 'he has himself planted.

Pavement Gardening.

In Europe the café system is very much in vogue. There people like to take their refreshments in the open air, on the pavement. The pavements are very wide, often wider than the roadway. The greater portion of the width is taken up by the marble-topped or other tables of the café, while pedestrians walk alone, a comparatively narrow strip immediately adjoining the roadway. The municipality makes considerable revenue through permits to café-keepers to thus encroach on what in English cities would be called foot-paths.

On the, pavement at the edge of the line of tables, or just, outside the premises where the pavement is narrow, plants in tubs or boxes are commonly employed, either to give shelter to customers, or to ornament the surroundings. The plants used necessarily vary with the locality. For example, in France the Oleander, Euonymus, tall Privets (Ligustrum) and Date Palms are commonly employed. In Hamburg I noticed Ivy on trellises, and Thuya.

The outdoor café system will be long in establishing itself in Sydney, partly because our citizens, as a rule, have not got into the way of drinking their "soft" and other drinks in view of passers-by, and mainly because the narrow pavements of Sydney have, never been designed to lend themselves to the fashion. But in this climate I think that the desire for outdoor life will bring facilities for its realisation in time.

London owes a good deal to the Metropolitan Public Gardens Association, of 83, Lancaster Gate, which supplied poplars and other trees and shrubs in large cubical boxes, painted green, to stand wherever space will admit of their being placed-in front of the Royal Exchange, for example.




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What I would like to emphasise is that there must be hundreds, aye, thousands, of places in the city of Sydney where neat boxes or tubs containing nice plants could be placed, and thus the city made a garden city, even in thoroughfares where it would be difficult, and perhaps impossible, to have trees along the foot-path.

Planting on the Surface of Roadways.

On the continent of Europe it is a common practice to plant actually on the top of the road surface. In northern Europe the winters are somewhat severe, and planting takes place in May. During that month the plants that have been sheltered under glass and elsewhere during a long winter are brought out by the cart load. A wide portion of the street is chosen, spy the junction of two streets, and on the (say) triangular portion thus available, soil is deposited and the plants planted or plunged in this soil. An edging is put to the bed and this street garden is a thing of beauty and gives great pleasure to passers-by. When October, with its chill winds approaches, the plants have lived their lives or are at all events no longer sightly. The municipal cart then comes and carts away everything, leaving the road bare for the winter, and probably new kinds of plants will be used in the design during the following May.

Roof Gardens.

This is a style of gardening that finds its way into Sydney but slowly, but as skyscrapers increase in number it will become an absolute necessity for roof-cafés, the roof-gardens arranged for employees, the roofs of clubs and. other institutions, caretakers' quarters, and so on. The chief trouble is in regard to high winds. When people are seized with the desirability of roof gardens they will make arrangements for a convenient water supply, and as all buildings are fitted with lifts, there will be no difficulty in bringing up soil and other garden requisites after hours. Ornamental boxes, tubs, and fountains will be freely used.

For the taller plants-starers: let us try Palms, Dracænas, Araucaria excelsa, while in a young state, they are bushy; Pandani (Screw pines), the hardy kinds, as the one on our coast or Lord Howe Island.

Shrubs. — These should be fairly large before being tubbed. Laurustinus, Euonymus, Oleander, Coprosma Baueriana (especially the variegated kinds), Eulalia japonica (a beautiful grass, graceful for the summer).

Small Plants. — Arums, Aspidista, hardy ferns, especially Birds' Nest fern, Stag-horn, &c., Rock-Lily.

Ivy of sorts for trailing and filling up generally. Asparagus, c.g., plumosus, will be also valuable in this connection.

Then hanging baskets can be introduced according to requirements.

Of course, these plants will be well planted in tubs or boxes by professional gardeners, who will attend to the soil, drainage, &c. They should he suitably watered and the leaves sponged occasionally. Each winter they will require the attention of a professional gardener who will re-box, if necessary, attend to the soil, prune if necessary, and so forth.




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Avenue Trees.

Trees for an avenue, or for a well defined part of it, should be of the same kind. Every celebrated avenue in the world, e.g., the Horse chestnut avenue of Bushey Park, near London, and the Cryptomeria Avenue of Nikko, Japan, are of one kind of tree. The mixed avenue is an abomination, ragged and irregular at the best. If the continuity of an avenue has to be broken, let it be at some well-defined break, such as the junction of an intersecting road, or where the road debouches on to a square.

If you take an expanse of any length in street planting it is difficult to secure uniform conditions above or below; that is one of the reasons why it is so hard to obtain precision in an avenue, which is one of its merits.

A level plain, with soil, drainage and other conditions uniform, is an ideal as high as we can get, but even then, in say a hundred planted trees some will be found to greatly exceed in vigour or be greatly inferior to the average, and, if this be observed only when the trees are fairly large, it is not easy to rectify matters.

Avenue planting requires careful judgment of a high order.

Roadside Trees in Country.

Much of what has been said is more appropriate, perhaps, to towns of greater or larger size. But the requirements of the resident of the country districts must not be lost sight of. Many a man has lost stock through driving them along a shadeless road, and more still have seen their animals much distressed for the same cause.

Often shadeless roads are caused through the cupidity of the adjacent landowner who begrudges the tree outside his fence the nutriment it gets from his land. The remedy is not to plant his crops so near the edge of the road. In most cases the landowner can be fairly expected to possess sufficient civic spirit to make some sacrifice to enable the trees along the side of the road (probably not planted by the hand of man) continue to render public service. And he should always bear in mind that he himself probably gets more advantage than anybody else from the presence of the trees.

List of Trees.

It is very difficult to make a condensed list of trees suitable for New South Wales. Our State is a very large one, with many soils and climates, and I have, in another place, divided it into five portions. (1) The cold region, consisting of the north and south tablelands — here British trees flourish; (2) the coastal strip; (3) the Northern Rivers, a distinctly sub-tropical belt, forming the north-eastern portion of the State; (4) the Western Slopes and Riverina; (5) the Western Plains.

If I were to attempt an even simpler classification as regards trees, I would say- (a) Cool districts with (1) dry, or (2) damp localities; and (b) warm districts, with (1) dry, or (2) damp localities. Damp localities are often associated with shelter. Trees which grow in dry situations often do better in moister situations with improved soil. Then again we have light soils, stiff soils, limestone soils, and so on. It is obvious that I can only lightly touch upon our varied conditions and requirements on the present occasion.




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The two principal planting problems in New South Wales affect (a) the coastal sandy strip; (b) the Western Plains. Many special difficulties are involved in regard to plant-life in these areas, and the present does not afford an opportunity for discussion of them.

In forming an idea of the appearance of trees in the Sydney district the Botanic Gardens is full of lessons, but it must be remembered that the soil is, as a rule, very poor, but it possesses many very sheltered situations. Further, in many cases the trees are too crowded together to enable specimen trees to be formed, and so they often have to be severely cut back.

In the Domain, because of its rocky and exposed Character, there is but little opportunity for growing trees in variety. In the Centennial Park the conditions are very difficult, and successive Annual Reports show how many trees have been tested there.

Native Trees. — First let me earnestly recommend people to cultivate what is best in their districts; let them grow the native trees. I am not so foolish as to ask people to grow only native plants. Let us grow the best things available, but I feel sure that, in this regard, people often "go farther and fare worse." It may be news to some that in New South Wales we possess nearly six hundred different kinds of native trees, and in this State are some of the most beautiful trees I have seen in any part of the world. Some people do already propagate the native trees, and still more people preserve those already existing; but we want people to do mare in this direction. Many parts of New South Wales have special climatic conditions, and the native trees which have become acclimatised throughout the ages are the safest to rely upon in trying times. Tried friends are Tristania conferta, the Brush box; Grevillea robusta, the Silky oak; Castanospermum australe, the Moreton Bay Chestnut; various Eucalypts, such as the Yellow Box (melliodora), Black or Swamp Box (bicolor). Tallow-wood (microcorys), Narrow-leaved ironbark (crebra), Peppermint (amygdalina); various conifers such as the Cypress pines (Callitris) and the plum pine (Podocarpus elata.)

Let us never forget that in our Cypress pines (Callitris) we have beautiful trees which flourish in the coast districts, in the mountains, and far away into the western plains; the White Cedar (Melia azedarach), the She-Oaks (Casuarina); and I could run on. Visitors to Sydney often regale me with accounts of the native trees in their districts, and the way in which they respond to a little attention. Native trees are, on the average, just as easy to grow from seed as exotics, so that there is nothing specially difficult in the matter.

Let me offer special notes on Wattles, She-Oaks and Figs.

Wattles are unsuited to street planting, as they mature too quickly. They are peculiarly liable to attacks by beetles, and I suppose that the average life of a wattle as a symmetrical tree in a city is not above five years. In the smoke of a city such as Sydney the delicate grey, fine foliage of such a tree as Acacia Baileyana becomes a disgrace in two years.




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Certain Melbourne suburbs with wide streets and fairly good soil, had regrettable experience with wattle-planting. The trees never gave satisfaction, and the local councils lost much time, which would have been saved had more permanent trees been planted.

Imported Pines (Pinus) are dying out rapidly in the Sydney district, with the exception of the Maritime Pine, for they are very difficult to control, being liable to fatal diseases. I reiterate the opinion that in our She-Oaks, which are very free from disease, we have a class of trees reminiscent of the Pines, and which are destined to replace them in many districts in which the Pines are dying out. Pines give a character of their own to the landscape, but the She-Oaks do not replace them in regard to the delicious health-giving odours they exhale. Another drawback to Pines for park purposes is that they will not, as a general rule, stand cutting.

And now let me turn to the maligned Moreton Bay Fig (Ficus macrophylla). To hear some people talk, all Moreton Bay figs should be banished from the Sydney district, but it does not seem to be realised that it is one of the best trees ever introduced to Sydney. It will grow amongst rocks, where scarcely anything else will grow; and it will stand being blown upon by fierce winds and being hacked about and otherwise ill-used. I admit that it can be put in the wrong. place (it must not be planted near buildings or pavements), but a Moreton Bay Fig with plenty of room, so that it can live its life, is one of the most beautiful of trees, while its foliage and fruit are nutritious to stock, and its umbrageous head affords a grateful shade.

Then the Port Jackson Fig (Ficus rubiginosa) is a most beautiful object. It is far less rampant than the preceding, and takes on an umbrella or mushroom shape, which is very symmetrical. It is nearly an ideal tree for general shelter purposes and picturesqueness, and is hardy in many parts of the State. Amongst deciduous Figs, Ficus Cunninghamii and Ficus Henneana are two of the best.

We divide trees into two grand groups — evergreens and deciduous. Dependent on locality, there are few trees that are neither quite one nor the other. For example, the silky oak in some districts scarcely loses its leaves in winter.

Evergreen Trees. — We will now take some evergreen trees, and it may be mentioned that in alpbabetical order we have:— Alectryon excelsa, the New Zealand titoki, a handsome tree suitable for our cold districts.

The carob (Ceratonia siliqua) is one of those trees which succeed right from the coast to the western plains. It does best in calcareous soil. It is a beautiful, umbrageous tree, and its pods afford nutritious food for both man and beast.

The camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) grows best in our coastal districts; it will not flourish on the mountains or tablelands, but it is worthy of experiment in many parts of the State where the soil is not too stiff and the subsoil is moist. It is a beautiful, densely foliaged tree, and is interesting in that camphor is prepared from the wood, though we cannot compete with Japanese and Chinese labour in this industry under existing circumstances.




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The karaka, a New Zealand tree, a beautiful dark, glossy-leaved species with orange- coloured fruits, has proved very desirable for the coast districts at no great distance from the sea. Not that it is restricted to such situations by any means, for the New Zealand laurel, as it is often called, has shown itself very tolerant to various soils and climates in New South Wales. It will stand much cold. Its botanical name is Corynocarpus lævigatus.

The weeping fig (Ficus Benjaminea) is singled out as one of the most beautiful of all figs for the warmer coast strip.

The India-rubber fig (Ficus elastica) is a beautiful species, grows fairly in Sydney, but it does not grow as rampantly as it may be confidently expected to do on the. Lower Clarence, Richmond, and Tweed. It ought to be grown much more commonly than it is.

The larger white Magnolia (M. grandiflora) is as handsome as a fig with its rich polished leaves. Its glory is its very large white, sweetly perfumed flowers. It must have a damp situation and shelter, and given these is tolerant to a fair amount of cold. Of course, it simply revels in the coast districts.

The olive tree (Olea europea) I have less to say about, since it flourishes best in calcareous soils, which are an exception in this State. At the same time it does fairly well in our coast districts, and should be more planted. The olive is commonly propagated by thick, longish pieces of the stem, known as truncheons.

Of the evergreen oaks (Quercus) we may mention Q. ægilops; the Valonia Oak, which by the way, is semi-deciduous with us. It is a beautiful species, best known for the acorn cups, which yield the valuable tanning material called valonia. It flourishes in moist places cooler than Sydney, and every encouragement should be given it.

The holly oak (Q. ilex) of South Europe is known to us in more than one variety, and does well in many parts of New South Wales, especially near the coast. It is really very valuable, and can be thoroughly recommended. An allied tree is Q. virens, the live or evergreen oak of North America. It and Q. ilex are grand trees, and cannot be too much planted. They grow in much the same situation. If it be desired to see in what poor soil accompanied by trying winds it will grow and form a handsome tree, look at the large number of them in Centennial Park, Sydney, and how well they do. The valuable cork oak (Q. suber) of South Europe is a handsome tree, and flourishes in the coastal districts. Its bark, of course, yields the cork of commerce.

Another valuable evergreen is the tree we know as pepper tree, (Schinus molle) a native of North and South America, from Mexico to Chili. It is a graceful umbrageous tree, and a very great merit is that it is hardy in most parts of the State, revelling in the coast districts, standing a good deal of cold, and even advancing far into the interior.

Deciduous Trees. — We now come to the deciduous trees, and the world is divided into two classes of people, the advocates of evergreens and of deciduous trees. There is much to be said for deciduous trees in towns. We have the beautiful spectacle of their unfolding leaf buds, then the abundance of their shady foliage, and finally we have the bare branches at a time when the sun has least power, and the streets require all the light they can obtain.




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Acer negundo, the box-elder of North America, is a maple, and Acer platanoides, the Norway maple, is another. They have beautiful leaves, and flourish in cold, damp situations. They will stand as much cold as we can give them in New South Wales.

Aesculus californica is the California buckeye or horse chestnut, dwarf in Sydney, but a large tree in moist rich soils in the cooler parts of the State. It has white flowers in trusses, and is one of the most lovely trees in the world. Therefore it is worth taking pains over. The true horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is also only for the cooler parts of this State, in low-lying localities. Those who have seen it in its best development in Europe recognise it as a beautiful object, and it is well worthy of cultivation, being especially, beautiful in the spring. In the summer with hot winds horse chestnuts are apt to be withered looking, but is not this a fault to which many deciduous trees are liable?

Ailanthus glandulosa is sometimes called the Tree of Heaven. It is a valuable tree, but liable to sucker, and hence should be kept away from cultivated ground, as it behaves like elms and poplars. It is very handsome, in a young state, and is one of the few trees well tested for dry situations, so that it is to be recommended for such trying situations in, many parts of the State; it will, however, grow almost anywhere. In Paris, where it is largely and successfully employed for avenue-planting, it is known as Vernix du Japon.

The Cape Chestnut (Calodendron capense) is hardy, and is such a specially handsome object when covered all over with its large mauve blossoms that it is worthy of abundant experiment. I believe it will grow in many parts of this State, and that it will stand a fair amount of dryness.

The pecan nut (Carya oliviformis) is a handsome tree which yields an excellent edible nut. It requires cool, damp situations.

The same localities are necessary for the proper development of the Spanish Chestnut (Castanea saliva), a handsome tree, yielding a nutritious nut which is specially acceptable when roasted. Australians are not a nut-eating people, but when they develop increased tendencies in this direction the Spanish or Sweet Chestnut tree will be very largely planted. At Mount Wilson the tree is perfectly at home.

Then we come to the Catalpas (bignonioides and speciosa), beautiful American trees which come to us with a great reputation. C. speciosa is a hardier and bigger tree than C. bignonioides, and they both should be further tested as rapid-growing trees in cold, clamp localities. Their reputation in New South Wales has so far come much below their American one, as it is found, so far, that they fail in dry weather, and will not stand our dry winds. Celtis australis, the lotus tree of South Europe, is a very dense. growing, handsome tree. It stands dry and cold as well as hot situations, like silky oaks, and I look upon it as one of the most generally useful trees as yet imported into New South Wales.




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Many people know the hardy coral trees which grow from large cuttings, and which shelter the cows and the homesteads on the South Coast when the people have carefully destroyed most of the original vegetation. The commonest one is Erythrina indica, and it will stand a considerable amount of cold. E. speciosa is very handsome, too, and is a smaller growing tree.

Then we come to the ashes (Fraxinus), most valuable trees for low, damp ground and river banks in the colder parts of the State. F. ornus, the manna ash, will stand fairly dry situations. The ashes are beautiful trees, and are noted for the toughness of their pale, handsome wood. The principal ashes that we grow in quantity in New South Wales are F. excelsior, the common ash of Europe; F. americana, the common American or white ash; F. pennsylvanica (sometimes known as pubescens), the red ash of the United States, F. nigra (sometimes known as sambucifolia), the black ash of the United States. The honey locust tree (Gleditschia triacanthos) of North America is very thorny. It may be recommended for exposed situations where nothing else will grow, and where it will never require to be interfered with. It should not be planted in choice situations where other trees will flourish. If planted closely it will form a hedge that a bull cannot find its way through.

Jacaranda mimosæfolia is a tree with fern-like foliage and beautiful tubular purple blossoms. It is one of the handsomest trees in cultivation. It is semi-deciduous like the silky oak. It is hardy in the coast districts and, foothills. It requires shelter.

The walnuts are well-known trees, Juglans regia being the common edible walnut of Europe. But the black walnut (J. nigra) of the Eastern United States is the most generally useful Juglans for New South Wales. It will stand more exposed situations and drier atmosphere than the others, which revel in low-lying, cold situations, with good soil.

J. cinerea is the butternut tree of the United States, and is a good fast grower near the coast in New South Wales. J. californica is a western species. All of them are handsome trees, and are worthy of more persistent experiment them has been, accorded to them so far.

Koelreuteria paniculata is a small Chinese tree after the fashion of Robinia. It. is well suited for dry climates, and should be well tested on the western slopes. It has large pinnate leaves, with large hanging panicles of yellow flowers.

Liquidambar styraciflua is the sweet gum tree of the United States. It is a beautiful tree, with maple-like leaves, and is one of the few trees which produce lovely autumnal foliage in Sydney. It requires much. the same treatment as Juglans, and I believe it is destined to be a valuable acquisition in many parts of the State in damp, sheltered situations.

The tulip tree of North America (Liriodendron tulipifera) is a very large tree. It also requires damp, deep soil and cold situations. It has large, handsome foliage, and large flowers of a yellowish red colour, from which bees extract much honey. It should be borne in mind that trees are most valuable to the bee-keeper, and axe specially worthy of consideration on that account alone.




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Most of us know the white mulberry (Morus alba) whose leaves ate so useful as food for silkworms. It will stand much drought, and hence is specially valuable on that account. Morus nigra, the black mulberry tree, the species which yields the luscious fruit, has large coarse foliage, and prefers damp situations. If it gets moisture it is tolerant to both heat and cold. Both mulberry trees should be grown far more extensively than they are.

Paulownia imperialis is one of the gorgeous flowering trees. It bears immense masses of large purple flowers. It comes from Japan, and is intolerant of the heat of Sydney, but is very fond of cold, damp localities.

Then we have the planes, of which we have two principal ones — Platanus orientalis, the ordinary or eastern plane, and P. occidentalis, the western plane. The one commonly grown in New South Wales is orientalis, and it is more generally hardy with us than occidentalis. The latter requires damper situations and better soil for its development. Both are, however, when well grown much alike, their differences being chiefly of a botanical character. The planes are very handsome trees, and to be recommended, but like most other trees, are apt to be withered looking after the hot winds of summer and early autumn.

The poplars are deservedly esteemed. They all love damp, cold situations, yet nevertheless, all do fairly well in Sydney. The principal ones are Populus fastigiata, the upright or Lombardy poplar; P. alba, the white poplar, which has the bad quality of producing a plentiful crop of suckers; P. angulata, the Water or Carolina poplar of the United States; P. betulifolia and P. nigra. The timber of poplars is used for wheelbrakes, and it is tough and will not split. The upright poplar perhaps stands most drought of them all. P. Bolleana, the Bollé poplar, is one of the numerous forms of P. alba, the White or Silver Poplar, and it is the best of the silvers for our State, as it suckers least. Here I may say that a great many plants and animals are most estimable, but have perhaps one serious drawback. The perfect man, horse, or tree requires to be discovered. For example, the White poplar is, in my estimation, a charming tree, but it suckers abominably, devastating lawns and flower borders a considerable distance away. Consequently the situation sometimes becomes intolerable, and it may be that the death-warrant of the White Poplar is occasionally signed simply because of its one bad habit.

The Rowan or Mountain Ash (Pyrus aucuparia), with its beautiful pinnate foliage and lovely masses of highly-coloured graceful small fruits, will flourish in the coldest localities and is a choice tree.

The deciduous oaks are many, and we can only refer to a few of them. Quercus bicolor, the Southern White Oak of the United States, is a useful species which grows fairly well in Sydney, but requires deep rich soil and a cooler situation.




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The Turkey Oak (Q. cerris) is one of the most distinct of the oaks; it is a shapely, umbrageous tree, with handsome, shiny foliage. It does remarkably well in Sydney, and will flourish in many parts of New South Wales. The Pin or Marsh Oak (Q. palustris) of the United States loves swampy localities, as its name denotes. Its autumnal foliage is beautiful. It prefers cooler localities than Sydney. Q. rubra, the red oak of the United States, so called because of the splendour of its autumnal foliage, requires similar treatment.

No park should be complete without a specimen of the so-called British Oak (Q. robur), which is widely diffused in Europe. Everyone knows it, and it has proved itself remarkably adjustable to circumstances in New South Wales.

The so-called Acacia (Robinia pseud-acacia) of North America is one of the most valuable trees imported into New South Wales. It has beautiful pinnate foliage, is umbrageous, and a very great merit consists in the fact that it is one of the most accommodating trees in the States, flourishing in heat and cold, moist and dry places.

We must never forget the willows, so graceful are they for river and lagoon banks and swampy situations. There are very many of them, of which the Weeping Willow (Salix babylonica) is best known. The readiness with which they strike from cuttings is proverbial. The Bedford willow (S. Russelliana) is more erect than the Weeping one, but it is a good companion for it. It is a large rapid grower, and it furnishes material for basket-work. The Huntingdon willow (S. alba) is a valuable species, one of those whose wood is useful for cricket-bats, brake-blocks, and similar purposes, where a light tough wood is required. Some day Australians, will make their own cricket-bats, and they use a great many of them. The common Osier (S. viminalis) is but a small tree, but it is one of the most valuable of all willows for economic purposes, and the time will come when the cutting and peeling and preparation of Osiers for the making of baskets and trays will be a recognised Australian industry.

The common lime or linden of Europe (Tilia europea) is suited for our coldest districts, where damp deep soil is available. It requires precisely the same treatment as the marsh-loving alder (Alnus glutinosa), which, by the way, I have omitted to notice in its proper alphabetical order. Both are handsome umbrageous trees.

Just a few words in regard to the elms (Ulmus). U. campestris, the common elm, is our great standby. It requires deep moist soil for its proper development, and although it will grow in Sydney, it requires much greater winter cold for its proper development. The cork elm is a handsome variety, and so is the Wych elm, though considered a species (U. montana) by some. The Wych elm is the fastest grower in Sydney, except the variety known as the Canadian giant, which is a really valuable tree; it is rather more spreading than the common elm. The Huntingdon elm is another useful variety (of montana). U. chinensis, the Chinese elm, is a beautiful species that should be included in every collection. Elms require cool winters for their best development. I am sorry to hear that many fine elms in New South Wales are loomed. Beautiful to look at, they are becoming a prey to boring beetles. The


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summer heat and warm nights appear to induce in these trees debility which renders them a prey to insects. Like so many of the trees mentioned in this article, they require, for healthy development, a fairly hard winter.

Amongst the coniferæ, the pines at once occur to us, and I am sorry that the scope of this article does not allow me to deal with them fully. But no collection of trees is complete without some of these beautiful and deliciously aromatic trees. I have already referred to them in speaking of the She-Oaks. The best of the pines are the heritage of the cold districts, but Araucaria and Agathis (otherwise Dammara) are ant their best only in the warmer coast districts. The coniferæ include the cypresses, some of the most lovely members of the vegetable kingdom; Cryptomeria japonica and Sequoia, also Abies and Picea, must be selected for special mention.

In a strict scientific classification the Taxaceæ are kept apart from the true coniferæ, and they include the beautiful maiden-hair tree (Ginkgo), Phyllocladus and Dracrydium (well developed in New Zealand), Podocarpus elata, our beautiful and useful she or brown pine; Primnopitys, the plum pines closely allied to Podocarpus, and very beautiful and umbrageous, together with a few others less known.

Just a brief word about Palms. If I am destined to be remembered in Sydney about a particular kind of tree, it will probably be palms. For many years I held the opinion that enough was not made of that feathery-leaved, graceful, tropical-looking plant, the palm. But a very grave responsibility rested on the man who recommended a palm for street planting. The railway station palm (Washingtonia) will not do. It grows too rapidly, and presents a long bare stem with a poor top.

My choice fell on, the Canary Islands Palm (Phænix canariensis). Time will show what faults it may develop, but it is certainly hardy, and is beautiful at all ages within the tests applied. It is comparatively free from disease, does not mature too rapidly, stands strong winds splendidly and so is an acquisition for the coast belt, even very close to the sea, a very trying situation. A specimen tree of about 35 years of age can be seen in the Botanic Gardens, and I have no doubt it will look well and not be too large for street planting at fifty years. With the inevitable changes in modern cities it is not unreasonable, if necessary, to ask for the street trees to be replanted twice in a century. Those who desire to see this beautiful palm under avenue conditions will see it in the Centennial Park and Macquarie-street. I believe that it may be extensively planted as an avenue tree in the Sydney suburbs and along the coast without any fear of producing monotony, and I am perfectly certain that, when private citizens and public bodies see well-grown palms they will desire to plant more of different species and varieties. They will add a graceful decorative note to the vegetation of Sydney that it very much lacks.

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