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16. Part XVI

37. Eucalyptus oleosa, F.v.M., var. Flocktoni, Maiden.

Description  185 
Affinities  185 

  ― 185 ―


E. oleosa, F.v.M., var. Flocktoni, Maiden.

An erect, many-stemmed shrub of 6–8 feet. Branchlets somewhat angular. Juvenile leaves unknown.

Mature leaves coriaceous, thick, equally green on both sides, dull to slightly glossy, petiolate, lanceolate to broadly lanceolate (common dimensions are, petiole 1–2 cm., leaf 10 cm, breadth 2–3 cm.).

Flowers pendulous, up to 7 in the umbel, with a common peduncle of 1 cm. and pedicels of half that length, calyx subcylindrical (about 4 cm. long), operculum tapering, constricted when dry, of slightly greater diameter than the calyx at the line of junction (about 6 cm. long). Anthers similar generally to those of the oleosa group, but less broad at the base than that of typical oleosa. Pistil long, as long or longer than the stamens, stigma not dilated.

Fruits urceolate, furrowed longitudinally but irregularly, much constricted at the orifice and tapering gradually to a rather short pedicel, of greatest diameter midway between the orifice and the pedicel, 1 cm. in length, with a diameter of ·75 cm., the valves well sunk within the capsule, or the ends of the slender tips of the same nearly approaching the orifice, rim narrow and furrowed.

Its closest affinity appears to be to E. oleosa, F.v.M., and to the var. glauca described in Part XV, but the fruit renders it sufficiently different from any other form of E. oleosa.

Esperance, W.A., Lindley L. Cowen, January, 1902. Desmond, near Ravensthorpe, W.A., J. H. Maiden, November, 1909; apparently not abundant.

I have named this form in honour of Miss Margaret Flockton, the accomplished artist of my “Critical Revision of the genus Eucalyptus” and “Forest Flora of New South Wales.”—Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. iii, Jan. 1911.


This is one of the puzzling forms that make one hesitate whether to call it a variety of an existing species or a new one. Although I label it a variety, it will be a convenient arrangement to compare it with other forms.

1. With E. oleosa, F.v.M.

The anthers resemble each other in var. Flocktoni and in the normal species, but they are not absolutely identical. The opercula (Fig. 2b, Plate 69) resemble those of most forms of E. oleosa. The urceolate shape of the fruits of var. Flocktoni has resemblances in var. glauca (see Figs. 10, 12b, 13b of Plate 66, for example). The tips of the valves are, however, not exsert, as in E. oleosa, while corrugation of buds and fruits (see 1c and 1d, Plate 69) is absent in the normal form.

E. oleosa, from the Murchison River, Western Australia, has been confused with E. fœcunda (see page 169, Part XV), and with E. decurva (see page 193 of the present Part). Some of the fruits are a little constricted and exhibit some resemblance to those of var. Flocktoni.

  ― 186 ―

2. With E. falcata, Turcz.

This is observable in the corrugation of buds and fruits, e.g., 1c and 1d, Plate 69, but (see Plate 68) E. oleosa, var. Flocktoni, and E. falcata are sufficiently distinct.

3. With E. decurva, F.v.M.

I have received from Professor Ewart a specimen from Herb. Melb., labelled “On the level plains, south from Stirling Range. Shrub 10 feet, 14th January, 1862. E. oleosa, F.v.M., var. Eucalyptus decurva, Benth., partim, non Ferd. Mueller.” It is E. oleosa, var. Flocktoni.

This locality is Kalgan Plains or thereabout, and the collector was probably Maxwell. The reference to Bentham is explained under E. decurva, this Part, p. 191, for Bentham confused Mueller's E. decurva with E. falcata.

Another specimen, “Peppermint,” Murchison River, Western Australia (Oldfield)” (see fig. 3, Plate 69) was included doubtfully in E. decurva by Bentham, and connects the present variety with E. oleosa.

A third specimen, Cowcowing, Western Australia (Max Koch), figured at 3, Plate 69, is also a connecting form.

It will be seen from the above that Bentham confused E. falcata and E. decurva because of the incomplete material at his disposal, and since E. oleosa, var. Flocktoni, was one of the forms so confused, I direct attention to the matter. Compare fig. 2, Plate 70 (E. decurva), and the strong resemblances will be at once evident.

At the same time the anthers of the two forms sharply separate them.

4. With E. torquata, Luehm.

The variety Flocktoni, especially in its most corrugated form (e.g., figs. 1c, 1d of Plate 69), certainly resembles E. torquata, Luehm. (see 6a and 6c, Plate 13, Part IV), but the anthers sharply separate the two Eucalypts, while other differences are apparent.

5. With E. incrassata, Labill.

Attention may be invited to the figures of E. incrassata buds at 1a, and fruits at 2a, Plate 15, Part IV of the present work. There is undoubted external similarity to E. oleosa, var. Flocktoni, but the anthers separate the two forms.

38. LXXVI. Eucalyptus Le Souefii, Maiden.

Description  187 
Range  187 
Affinities  188 

  ― 187 ―


LXXVI. E. Le Souefii, sp. nov.

Arbor mediocriter alta.

Cortex rimosa basi arboris majore parte trunci et omnibus ramis lævibus.

Lignum brunneum.

Ramuli angulares.

Folia juvenes ovato-lanceolata, glauca, crassa, plerumque 10 cm. longa et 7 cm. lata, perfoliata, conspicue venosa.

Folia matura lanceolata, petiolata, plerumque 10 cm. long et 2 cm. lata, petiolis 2 cm., coriacea, concoloria, vena peripherica a margine remotiuscula, costa media prominens, penniveniis.

Opercula conoidea plerumque cupulâ diametro excedens, alabastra costis numerosis approxime parallelis vel alis.

Fructus prope hemisphærici, circa 1 cm. diametro, numerosis costis vel prope læves.

Margo latiuscula, valvis exsertis.

A tree of medium size.

Bark flaky at the butt, the greater portion of the trunk and the whole of the branches smooth.

Timber cigar-brown in colour.

Juvenile leaves branchlets angular. Leaves ovate-lanceolate to ovate, glaucous, coarse, say 10 cm. long by 7 cm. broad in some specimens, petiolate, thick, venation distinct, rather more prominent on the underside, venation spreading, becoming more pinnate as growth proceeds, margin of leaf thickened, and intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge, oil dots obvious in the early stage.

Mature leaves lanceolate, petiolate, commonly 10 cm. long and 2 broad, with petioles of 2 cm., coriaceous, equally green on both sides, the intramarginal vein distinct from the edge, midrib prominent, feather-veined.

Flowers shortly pedunculate in the axils of the leaves, peduncles flattened and about 1 cm. long, pedicels short or almost absent, up to seven in the head, opercula conoid, and usually of greater diameter at the point of junction with the calyx-tube, the buds with numerous roughly parallel ridges or wings.

Anthers opening in parallel slits with gland at back. Belonging to the same series as E. incrassata.

Fruits nearly hemispherical, about 1 cm. in diameter, with numerous longitudinal ribs, or nearly smooth. Rim broadish, valves exsert.

Named in honour of Mr. Ernest Le Souef, Director of the Zoological Gardens, Perth, who furthered my botanical expedition to Western Australia (1909), by every means in his power.


This species occurs in Western Australia. The type comes from Kalgoorlie (J. H. Maiden). I have also collected it from a Wood Line about 70 miles north of Kurrawang, while I have received it from Dr. A. Morrison, who obtained it from Hampton Plains, near Coolgardie (E. Lidgey).

  ― 188 ―


1. With E. corrugata, Luehmann.

E. Le Souefii possesses considerable external resemblance to another “corrugated” species, E. corrugata, Luehmann, and the anthers are nearly similar. The buds are different in shape, the opercula being very dissimilar not only in shape, but in the circumstance that its diameter is greater at the point of junction to the calyx-tube. It appears to be intermediate between E. corrugata and E. incrassata.

2. With E. goniantha, Turcz.

From E. goniantha, Turcz., it is sharply separated by the anthers, which belong to the E. oleosa series in that species.

3. With E. Griffithsii, Maiden.

From E. Griffithsii, Maiden, it is separated by the buds and fruits, and by the narrow juvenile leaves of that species.

39. LXXVII. Eucalyptus Clelandi, Maiden.

Description  189 
Synonym  189 
Range  190 
Affinities  190 

  ― 189 ―


LXXVII. E. Clelandi, sp. nov.

Arbor mediocriter alta, “Blackbutt” nota.

Cortex basi arboris rimosa, major pars trunci et omnes rami teretes. Ramuli glauci.

Lignum brunneum, durissimum.

Folia pendula. Folia juvenes ovato-acuminata, glauca, concoloria venæ non prominulae præter costam mediam, vena peripherica a margine distincte remota.

Folia matura angustato—lanceolata, 12 cm. longa, 1.5 cm. lata, glauca, coriacea, venæ non prominulæ, lateribus penniveniis, vena peripherica a margine parum remota.

Alabastra longis operculis corrugatis, calycis tubus leniter corrugatus v. lævis.

Operculum calycis tubo diametro leniter excedens.

Fructus subcylindrici, circiter, ·5 cm. longi, valvis leniter exsertis.

A tree of medium size, one of several known in Western Australia as “Blackbutt.”

Bark hard-flaky or fibrous-flaky and blackish at butt, the rest of the trunk and all the branches smooth. Branchlets glaucous, as likewise the whole of the saplings.

Timber cigar-brown, very hard.

Foliage more or less pendulous.

Juvenile leaves ovate-acuminate, pedunculate, equally glaucous green on both sides, venation not conspicuous, except the midrib, intramarginal vein distinctly removed from the edge.

Mature leaves narrow-lanceolate, 12 × 1.5 cm. being common dimensions, petiolate, dull green, coriaceous venation not conspicuous, lateral veins feather-like, intramarginal vein hardly removed from the edge.

Buds with long corrugated opercula, the calyx-tube but slightly corrugate or smooth. Diameter of the operculum slightly exceeding that of the calyx-tube at the line of junction.

Fruits numerous, very glaucous, nearly sessile on a common peduncle of about 1 cm. Subcylindrical in shape, about ·5 cm. long, valves slightly exsert.

I have named it in honour of Mr. A. F. Cleland, Civil Engineer, of Kurrawang, who gave me facilities for travel on the private line of a company with which he is connected, where I collected this and other imperfectly known trees, and of Dr. J. Burton Cleland, nephew of the above, who made many botanical investigations in Western Australia before coming to Sydney.


E. goniantha, Turcz., var. Clelandi, Maiden, in Proc. West. Aust Nat. Hist. Soc., iii, 176.

This slip of the pen would have been corrected had I been favoured with a proof of my paper, but this inadvertence took place through a change in the management of the society.

  ― 190 ―


Type from Goongarrie, 65 miles north of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia.

Collected also at Lannin's timber camp, then (1909) nearly 70 miles north of Kurrawang.


The precise position of this species cannot be stated in absence of anthers, but I have spared no pains to endeavour to get flowers, and have failed. I have followed the precedent of an eminent botanist (Bentham) in naming a eucalypt (cœsia) in absence of flowers.

1. With E. Le Souefii, Maiden.

It possesses obvious external similarities to E. Le Souefii, but it would be mere assumption to tack it on to that species as a variety, since the anthers might belong to a different series. Its relation to E. goniantha, Turcz., is probably less close.

2. With E. calycogona, Turcz., var. celastroides, Maiden.

When I found E. Clelandi, I found another somewhat similar tree, E. calycogona, var. celastroides, which is another of the numerous “Blackbutts.” The smooth bark of the former is more interlocked than that of the latter. For notes on var. celastroides, see Part III, p. 79, and discussion of further affinities of E. Clelandi must be postponed until flowers are available.

40. LXXVIII. Eucalyptus decurva, F.v.M.

Description  191 
Range  192 
Affinities  192 

  ― 191 ―


LXXVIII. E. decurva, F.v.M.

THE original description will be found in Fragm. iii, 130 (1863), and, as confusion has arisen in regard to it, I give a translation.

Shrubby, branches soon terete, pruinose, leaves alternate or irregularly opposite, moderately petiolate, ovate-or falcate-lanceolate, acuminate with a hooked point, equally coloured on both sides, indistinctly and distantly penniveined, imperforate, the marginal vein obscure and distant from the margin, solitary few-flowered axillary or lateral umbels, with rather slender slightly compressed peduncles, pedicels recurved about as long as the calyx, shorter than the peduncle, narrow-campanulate calyx-tubes nearly twice as long as the hemispherical finely apiculate operculum, but hardly so broad, anthers cordate-ovate, fruits truncate-ovate, without ribs, gradually contracted towards the orifice, with included valves and wingless seeds.

In shrubby places near Perongerup (Porongorups), Western Australia. Maxw. (Maxwell).

Tall glabrous shrub. Leaves rather shining, mostly 2 to 4 inches long, ½ to 1 inch broad, intensely green, finely veined. Peduncles ½ to 1 inch long, not rarely deflexed in age. Calyx-tube about three lines long, brown as well as the operculum. Filaments yellowish in the dried state, the longest hardly three lines long. Fruit about five lines long. Fertile seeds much larger than the sterile ones, blackish, nearly oblique-tetrædric.

Then Bentham describes it in B.Fl. iii, 249, but, as I shall show presently, he confused it in part with E. falcata, Turcz., while “A specimen in fruit only from Murchison River, Oldfield, (which) looks like the same species” (B.Fl. iii, 249) is E. oleosa, F.v.M.

Then Mueller makes the following statement:—

E. decurva (Fragm. phytogr. Austral., iii, 130) is recognised already by its elongated anthers, which are very evidently longer than broad, opening with parallel narrow slits, quite agreeing with those of genuine species of the series Parallelantheræ, but Bentham's description of E. decurva in the Flora Australiensis, iii, 249, refers extensively to such varieties of E. oleosa as verge to E. falcata and E. goniantha, all of which, with E. concolor, should in the anthereal system be placed close to E. decipiens among the Micrantheræ. (Eucalyptographia, E. gracilis.)

It is a tall, spindly Mallee-like shrub of 10–15 feet. The upper parts of the branches are glaucous, which make it somewhat conspicuous. The branchlets are red.

The juvenile foliage is now recorded for the first time. It is nearly elliptical-ovate, stem-clasping, lobed at the base, slightly glaucous, equally green on both sides. Some leaves are about 2½ inches long by 2¼ broad.

  ― 192 ―


The species is confined to Western Australia, so far as we know at present.

Following is the label in Mueller's handwriting on the type:—

Eucalyptus decurva! Ferd. Mueller. East from Perongerup. Maxw.” (Maxwell). The specimen I have seen is in bud only.

Following is a copy of the label of the same specimen in Maxwell's handwriting:—

“Shrub, east from the Perongerups. Bark smooth. Ten feet. Very much like the East Mt. Barren Eucalypti.”

I collected it in the same place or district, i.e., in various parts of the Kalgan Plains, between the Porongorups and the Stirling Range.

Diels (No. 3,420) collected it practically in the same place, viz., between King George's Sound and Cape Riche.

E. Pritzel (No. 469) gives “South West Plantagenet,” which is still the same district.


1. With E. falcata, Turcz.

So much confusion has arisen between the two species that it will be useful to clear the matter up.

As stated in Fragm. iii, 130, the type of E. decurva, F.v.M., was collected by Maxwell near the Porongorups. Other Eucalypts were collected by the same collector at the same place. Some years ago I received a fragment of a plant stated to be the type, from the Herbier Barbey-Boissier at Geneva, and, with it in my hand, hunted in the vicinity of the Porongorups for it. I matched this particular specimen absolutely, but found it to be E. falcata, Turcz. (See p. 180, Part XV.)

Speaking of the stamens of E. decurva, F.v.M., Bentham says, “Stamens slender, inflected with an acute angle.” (B.Fl. iii, 197.) And again, “Stamens about 3 lines long, the filaments slender and acutely inflected as in E. uncinata and E. corynocalyx; anthers very small, globular, with distinct parallel cells.” (B.Fl. iii, 249.)

The stamens described are those of E. falcata. The filaments of E. decurva are not inflected at an acute angle.

  ― 193 ―

Then we have:—

Eucalyptus decurva, F.v.M. (B.Fl. iii, 249).

In statu typico a priori facile distinguitur, sed formis intermediis variis eacum connectam esse videtur.

Vidimus frutices 1–3 m. alt. non nisi per distr. Stirling in arenosis sparsos floribus ochroleucis hinc inde purpureo-suffusis onustos m. Jul.; pr. Warriup formam ad E. oleosam, F.v.M., vergentem (D. 3,420), ad latera collis. Suckey's Peak formam typicam (D. 2,989). (Diels and Pritzel, Engler's Jahrb., xxxv (1905), p. 443.)

In the above passage the form of E. decurva (D. 3,420) stated to show transit to E. oleosa is the true E. decurva, while the “forma typica” (D. 2,989), is really E. falcata.

If my readers will compare Plate 68, Part XV, with figures 1 and 2 of the present Part, no further difficulty will arise in the future as to the confusion of E. decurva and E. falcata. The trouble doubtless arose originally through some mixing of specimens of what were at the time very rare species, a mixing that can be readily understood by one who has been over the ground, since the two species grow in the same localities, and the plants present a somewhat similar appearance. The confusion originally arose with fruiting specimens—there is a more marked difference between the buds. The filaments and anthers are different.

2. With E. oleosa, F.v.M.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 249) quotes Drummond's 5th Coll. 186 (in addition to the type collected by Maxwell) as E. decurva, F.v.M.

He also calls the same specimen E. uncinata, var. rostrata (B.Fl. iii, 216).

I have (fig. 15, Plate 66, and p. 173, Part XV) stated that, in my opinion, Drummond's specimen is E. oleosa, var. glauca. It is this variety which presents the closest similarity to E. decurva, but the buds and fruit are of a different shape, and those of E. decurva are more drooping, while the anthers of E. decurva are not closely related to those of E. oleosa, but have a greater resemblance to those of the E. incrassata group.

I have already referred to the fact that Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 249) refers certain Murchison River specimens of Oldfield to E. decurva, or rather states that they “look like the same species.”

These specimens are doubly unfortunate, for (B.Fl. iii, 253) they were referred to E. fœcunda also. They really belong to E. oleosa, and I have cleared the matter up at p. 169, Part XV, while they are figured at 3a and 3b, Plate 22, Part IV.

They are in fruit only, and the reference is pardonable enough. They are, however, less pendulous, rather smaller, have the valves rather more exsert and the styles more persistent; the leaves are also more shiny than those of E. decurva.

  ― 194 ―

3. With E. cladocalyx, F.v.M.

E. decurva reminds one of the droop of flowers and shape of buds of E. cladocalyx, but the anthers and the fruits are very different.

4. With E. doratoxylon, F.v.M.

E. decurva is the complementary species to E. doratoxylon, the most obvious difference between them being the broader leaves and larger inflorescence generally of the former species.

5. With E. incrassata, Labill.

The figures of E. decurva in this Part may be compared with those of E. incrassata in Part IV.

6. With E. leucoxylon, F.v.M.

This species has also a more or less decurved inflorescence (see fig. 13a, Plate 55). The shape of the fruits is also a good deal similar, but in E. leucoxylon the fruit tends to crack round the rim when ripe, which has not been noted so far in E. decurva. E. leucoxylon is a large tree, and differs in many respects from E. decurva.

41. LXXIX. Eucalyptus doratoxylon, F.v.M.

Description  195 
Notes supplementary to the description  195 
Range  195 
Affinities  197 

  ― 195 ―


LXXIX. E. doratoxylon, F.v.M.

IT was originally described in Fragmenta, ii, 55 (1860). The specific name begins with a capital D in the original.

It was then described in English by Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 249).

It is figured and described by Mueller in the Eucalyptographia.

Notes supplementary to the Description.

It is usually a shrub, but Mueller quotes Mr. Thomas Muir as stating that its trunk attains 3 feet in diameter. The bark is stated to be greenish white.

The striæ in the fruits depicted in the Eucalyptographia may be misleading. The ripe fruits are quite smooth, and of course there is shrivelling in unripe fruits, but nothing approaching striation.

The flowers are depicted as erect; all that I have seen are pendulous, like the buds.


The species has not been found out of Western Australia.

Maxwell originally obtained it at a place called Kojoneerup, which I cannot trace, and would suggest that it is in the vicinity either of the Stirling Range, or of the Russell Range, where Mueller stated Maxwell collected it.

E. buprestium was found in the same locality (Eucalyptographia); the spelling is Kojonerup in B.Fl. iii, 206.

The names of the old collectors are sometimes omitted from modern maps, or so altered in spelling that one fails to recognise them. At the same time, they are obviously of importance to the botanist.

In Hooker's Journ. Bot., i, 247 (1849) and subsequent pages, is a letter from James Drummond, dated Cape Riche, 29th October, 1848. He is giving an account of his collecting trip, “principally on the Perongarup and Toolbranup Hills

  ― 196 ―
(Stirling Range), and in the vicinity of Cape Riche.” He speaks on several occasions of collecting on “Congineerup, near the east end of the mountain,” and with other context.

I would suggest that “Kojoneerup” and “Congineerup” refer to the same place. Congineerup is evidently not part of the Stirling Range, although it may be in the same district.

The localities given by Bentham are Lucky Bay, R. Brown (this is a few miles south-east of Esperance.—J.H.M.), Sullinup (I would suggest that this is a copy of bad handwriting for “Stirling.”—J.H.M.) Ranges and Russell Range (a little north-west of Israelite Bay.—J.H.M.), Maxwell, Baxter, Drummond, 3rd Coll. No. 69, 4th Coll. No. 97.

Mueller (Eucalyptographia) adds the localities, Cape Arid, also “Mount Lindsay” (north of Wilson's Inlet.—J.H.M.), “extending to the most south-eastern sources of Swan River (Muir), mostly in rich soil along brooks, reaching the summits of mountains up to 3,000 feet elevation.”

I have seen the following specimens:—

No. 4,792. R. Brown. South Coast, 1802–5. Probably Lucky Bay. I have also seen a specimen, labelled in Brown's handwriting, “Bay 1,” which we know to be Lucky Bay.

No. 69. Drummond in Herb. Cant. in bud only.

“Bell Gum,” Kalgan, Western Australia (Oldfield). In Herb. Barbey-Boissier. This locality is near the Stirling Range, and the name “Bell Gum” was given partly in allusion to the shape of the fruit, but chiefly because of its pendulous habit.

Red Gum Pass, Stirling Range (Dr. A. Morrison).

“Blue Gum,” Wilson's Inlet, Western Australia (Oldfield), in Herb. Cant.

Then we have:—

“In dist. Eyre a sinu Esperance Bay septentrionem versus præcipue alluvia argillaceo-arenosa subnitrosa occupat (D. 5,335)” (Diels and Pritzel, Engler, Jahrb., xxxv (1905), p. 443). So that the known localities extend from the Russell Range in the east to Mount Lindsay in the west, thence to Cape Arid, Lucky Bay, Esperance Bay to the Stirling Range, thence going north to the sources of the Avon, say a few miles east of Pingelly.

It will thus be seen that many gaps require to be filled as regards the range of this interesting species.

  ― 197 ―


1 and 2. With E. decurva, F.v.M., and E. falcata, Turcz.

Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 250) says “Allied in many respects, especially in the inflorescence and shape of the flowers to E. decurva; this species is readily distinguished by the leaves mostly opposite, and by the stamens.”

This may be termed a complementary species to E. decurva, and decurved peduncles are observable in both species. The leaves of E. doratoxylon are narrower, and the fruits smaller. (See Plate 70.)

As regards Bentham's remarks, it must be borne in mind that he confused E. decurva with E. falcata (ante, p. 191). E. doratoxylon has not the ribbed calyx-tube of E. falcata, nor the long operculum, while the shape and size of the fruits is different.

42. LXXX. Eucalyptus corrugata, Luehmann.

Description  198 
Notes supplementary to the description  198 
Range  198 
Affinities  199 

  ― 198 ―


LXXX. E. corrugata, Luehmann.

Victorian Naturalist, Melbourne, xiii, 168 (1897).

A tree attaining about 30 feet in height, with a smooth, ashy-grey bark.

Leaves on rather long petioles, mostly narrow-lanceolar, slightly falcate, narrowed at the base, acuminate, 3 inches to 4 inches long, ? inch to rarely ? inch broad, rather thick, dark green and very shining on both sides, black-dotted, the lateral veins rather numerous and spreading but hardly visible without a lens, the marginal vein close to the edge.

Peduncles axillary or lateral, nearly terete, about half an inch long, bearing an umbel of 3 to 5 shortly pedicellate flowers.

Calyx-tube hemispherical, with 6 to 8 very prominent ridges, about ½ inch across, brownish, shining.

Operculum hemispherical, with ridges similar to those of the calyx.

Stamens mostly inflected in bud; anthers oblong, opening by parallel longitudinal slits.

Fruit hemispherical, not much larger than the flowering calyx, mostly 4-celled, nearly flat-topped, the valves shortly protruding.

Golden Valley, in the interior of Western Australia. W. A. Sayer.

This species is evidently allied to E. incrassata, but none of the forms of that species have such high ridges, nor the same hemispheric shape of the calyx and operculum. E. pachyphylla, which has also prominent ribs, can be easily distinguished by the broader dull-coloured leaves, as well as other characters.

Notes supplementary to the Description.

The late Mr. Luehmann says nothing about the prominent ridges of the fruit (see 6a, 7c, Plate 70), perhaps leaving them to be presumed from the description of the calyx-tube.

The juvenile foliage is still unknown.


So far as I know, this species has never been collected far from the place where it was originally found. This is Golden Valley, which is near Southern Cross, Western Australia.

I collected it about 5 miles from Southern Cross, going northerly. A tree of medium size, glaucous at the time of my visit (September).

  ― 199 ―


1. With E. incrassata, Labill.

Mr. Luehmann drew attention to this. The corrugation in the organs of E. incrassata can be seen in Plate 14. After the first proofs of Plate 70 had been printed off I found a few immature stamens in my Southern Cross specimens and figured them at 7c. The anthers are what I know as “incrassata” anthers.

2. With E. Le Souefii, Maiden. (See Plate 69.)

In this case the operculum is very different, as has been pointed out (ante p. 188). Here are two forms, and there are others, which belong to the E. incrassata group, and different botanists may hold different opinions as to whether we should constitute a wider E. incrassata, with many varieties. Until Western Australia (not to mention other States) is very much better explored botanically, it seems desirable to give specific names to some of these forms.

3. With E. pachyphylla, F.v.M.

Mr. Luehmann drew attention to this, but he did not give the name of the author. It is not, however, E. pachyphylla, F.v.M., p. 101, Part IV, nor E. pachyphylla, A. Cunn., p. 103 of the same Part, both of which are forms of E. incrassata.

It is doubtless another E. pachyphylla, F.v.M., viz., that which is figured in the Eucalyptographia, and which is thought by some to be a form of E. pyriformis, Turcz. It has been figured at 6a and 6b of Plate 75, which will be published in Part XVII of this work. Fruits, buds and anthers are very different; the two species have raised ribs on buds and fruits; this presents their greatest similarity.

4. With E. goniantha, Turcz.

Diels and Pritzel (Engler's Jahrb., XXXV (1905), p. 443) drew attention to the strong affinity between these two species. The buds and flowers of E. goniantha are alone known. As will be seen from fig. 1a, Plate 18, Part IV, the opercula and the buds generally are very different.

43. LXXXI. Eucalyptus goniantha, Turcz.

Description  200 
Synonym  200 
Range  200 
Affinities  201 

  ― 200 ―


LXXXI. E. goniantha, Turcz.

THE original description will be found in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc., xx, pt. i, p. 163 (1847), and is set out at p. 103, Part IV, of the present work. So it need not be repeated at this place.

It was afterwards described by Bentham at B.Fl. iii, 248.

All that we know of this species is contained in Bentham's description.

Unless further information is contained in labels in any of the herbaria, it is not even known whether it is a shrub or a tree.

The description of the juvenile foliage, &c., as recorded under E. goniantha, Turcz., in my paper, Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. and Science Soc., iii, 175, should be deleted. It mainly refers to E. Le Souefii, and was inserted in that place through a slip of the pen, while through inadvertence I received no proof of the paper.


E. incrassata, Labill., var. goniantha, Maiden.

In page 103, Part IV, I made this variety, but my view was erroneous.


It is confined to Western Australia. Bentham (B.Fl. iii, 248) gives the following localities:—King George's Sound or to the eastward, Collie, Baxter, Drummond, 3rd Coll. No. 71; Franklin River, Maxwell (in fruit only, with rather broad leaves).

The species is evidently rare, for in my recent journeys I could not find it, although I made diligent search. I should be very grateful if any of my readers could give me a precise locality from which I could procure it. Kew has not Maxwell's specimen, nor any fruiting specimen of the species. I have been unable to see a fruit in any herbarium.

  ― 201 ―


1. With E. incrassata, Labill.

Mueller drew attention to this affinity (p. 103, Part IV) and I need not reprint his statement here.

2. With E. oleosa, F.v.M.

From the point of view of the anthers the affinity of E. goniantha is with E. oleosa and not with E. incrassata.

3. With E. falcata, Turcz.

Its closest affinity seems to be with this species. More can be said when the fruit of E. goniantha is discovered.

44. LXXXII. Eucalyptus Stricklandi, Maiden.

Description  202 
Range  202 
Affinity  202 

  ― 202 ―


LXXXII. E. Stricklandi, Maiden.

In Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc., iii, p. 175 (1911).

FRUTEX creditus est; ramuli glauci; folia matura pallida, concoloria postea nitida, coriacea, crassa, petiolata, lanceolata; flores sessiles pedunculo latissimo planoque. Operculum prope ovoideum, calycis tubus distincte expansus costam prominentem formans. Calycis tubus operculo equilongus (1 cm.), costatus expansusque, duabus costis prope alas formantes. Videtur E. incrassatœ in antheris forsan approximanda. Fructus, sub-cylindrici; lenissime, urceolati; sessiles, circiter, 1·5 cm. longi et 1 cm. in diametro.

Probably a shrub, but no particulars furnished. Branchlets, glaucous. Juvenile leaves not seen.

Mature leaves pale dull green on both sides, afterwards glossy on both sides, coriaceous, thick, petiolate, lanceolate. (The few leaves seen, up to 10 cm. long, and 2–3 cm. broad.)

Flowers—The buds three to six in the umbel as seen, sessile on a very broad flat peduncle 1–1 ·5 cm. long. Opercula nearly ovoid, the calyx-tube markedly expanded at the line of junction, forming a well-defined ridge, and forming an “egg-in-egg-cup” arrangement. Calyx-tube of about the same length as the operculum (1 cm.) ridged and flattened, so that two of the ridges almost form wings.

Long narrow anther, with long narrow gland, filament nearly at the base; is related to E. incrassata as regards anthers, but closer to E. Campaspe, Moore, and E. diptera, Andrews, so far as we have evidence at present. Filaments dry red.

Fruits sub-cylindrical, very slightly urceolate, two equi-distant sharp low ridges or wings, sessile, about 1 ·5 cm. long by 1 cm. in diameter, rim grooved and narrow, valves (four in the specimens seen) with their tips below the orifice.

It is a remarkable plant, is probably small, and is worthy of cultivation for its handsome and striking flowers. It is named in honour of His Excellency Sir Gerald Strickland, K.C.M.G., Governor of Western Australia.


Confined to Western Australia, so far as we know. It has only been found on the Hampton Plains Estate, east of Coolgardie, where it was found by Mr. E. Lidgey, and communicated to me by Dr. A. Morrison.


With E. grossa, F.v.M.

The closest affinity of this species is to E. grossa, F.v.M., from which it differs in the peculiar shape of the buds, and to a less extent in the fruits. The filaments of the new species dry red, while they appear to always remain yellow in E. grossa.

I cannot see my way to assume that it is a variety of that species.

45. LXXXIII. Eucalyptus Campaspe, S. le M. Moore.

Description  203 
Notes supplementary to the description  203 
Range  203 
Affinities  204 

  ― 203 ―


LXXXIII. E. Campaspe, S. le M. Moore.

In Journ. Linn. Soc., xxxiv, 193 (1899).

FOLLOWING is a translation of the original description:—

A large much-branched shrub with shortly petiolate lanceolate leaves, obtusely acuminate, straight or slightly falcate, peduncles axillary or extra-axillary and abbreviated, broadly winged, two to six-flowered, with pedicels shorter than the calyx-tube, the calyx-tube broad-turbinate, with a nearly hemispherical umbonate operculum little longer than the calyx-tube. Anthers oblong-ovate, distinctly dehiscent, with an ovarium little shorter than the calyx-tube, covered at the top.

Hab. Gibraltar (Western Australia), flowers in the month of October.

About 4 metres high. Leaves 6 to 11 cm. long, at the middle 1 to 2 cm. broad, gradually contracted towards the base on both sides, with a whitish bloom, the midrib very conspicuous, especially underneath, the side-nerves inconspicuous, forming an obscure and incomplete network, the marginal nerve close to the margin, occasionally obscure, the petioles 1 cm. long. Peduncles ·6 to ·8 cm. long, ·3 to · cm. broad, covered with a white bloom, as well as the branchlets, pedicels, and calyces. Pedicels not beyond ·2 cm. long. Calyx-tube ·4 cm. long, ·6 cm. diameter, conspicuously marginate. Operculum ·6 cm. long, shortly and obtusely mucronate. Stamens 1 cm. long, inflexed in the bud; anthers ·12 cm. long. Capsules unknown.

Notes supplementary to the Description.

Mr. Moore could only spare me the material depicted at 2a, 2b, 2c, but I have since obtained further specimens, including the fruits.

At p. 120, Part IV of this work, is a photograph of a forest scene near Coolgardie. The tree to the left is E. torquata, Luehmann, while the small or medium-sized tree to the right is E. Campaspe, Moore, and is described by Dr. L. C. Webster, who took the photograph, as “a White Gum with ribbony bark.”

The juvenile foliage is at present unknown.

The anthers open very widely in parallel slits, the dehiscence often tearing the anther-cell wall at both top and bottom. The gland often fills up the back of the anther, and the two edges of the cells may not enclose it, as in E. diptera.

The filament is at the base of the anther.


It was found at Gibraltar, Western Australia, by the describer (Gibraltar is in lat. 31° 3' S., and long. 120° 59' E., and is, say, 15 miles south-west of Coolgardie), and later on by Mr. (now Dr.) L. C. Webster, a few miles out of Coolgardie, more definite locality not stated. Also by Ernest Lidgey, Block 59, Hampton Plains Estate, east of Coolgardie.

  ― 204 ―

It was first found (recorded as E. obcordata, Turcz., in Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., xvi, 358) by Mr. R. Helms, 40 miles from Fraser's Range, 5th November, 1891 (“Elder Exploring Expedition”), which is about 100 miles south-east of Coolgardie.


1. With E. rudis, Endl.

Mr. Moore suggests the affinity of his species to E. rudis, and op. cit., p. 193, he uses the following words:—

The affinity would seem to be with E. rudis, Endl., which is a tree with broader leaves on longer petioles; it has neither the short conspicuously winged peduncles nor the sub-sessile flowers; moreover, its operculum is longer and conical.

I do not think the resemblance is at all close; however, the comparison can be well deferred until I figure E. rudis.

2, 3, 4. With E. torquata, Luehmann, E. diptera, Andrews, and E. incrassata, Labill.

It would appear that the stamens most closely resemble those of the first two species.

The stamens also resemble those of E. incrassata, but not so closely as those of the species named. A difference between the E. Campaspe and E. incrassata stamens, so far as we know at present, is in the longer gland of E. Campaspe, the filament at the base of E. Campaspe, whereas in E. incrassata it is much further up. They also appear to vary in the dehiscences; in E. Campaspe the anther-cell walls often split from top to bottom (see 4b, Plate 71), while in E. incrassata it would appear that the dehiscence never proceeds so far.

The affinity of E. Campaspe is not very close to any of these species; it would appear to be as close to E. diptera as to any, but we require full material of both species, including timber, and to examine E. Campaspe and other species in the bush, before we can speak fully as to affinities.

5. With E. incrassata, Labill., var. conglobata, another Eucalypt which has hemispherical fruits with exserted valves and strap-shaped peduncles. (See Plate 17, Part IV.) It is, however, non-glaucous. The opercula are different, and so are the stamens.

6. With E. annulata, Benth. (E. cornuta, Labill., var. annulata, F.v.M.)

In this species or variety, which, by the way, is not glaucous, we have hemispherical fruits, and a strap-shaped peduncle. The tips of the valves are much more protruded in E. annulata; the operculum is totally different; the filaments are yellowish and long in E. annulata, and dry reddish in E. Campaspe.

  ― 205 ―

7. With E. alba, Reinw.

The buds of the two species are often alike in shape, but this is the only morphological similarity I can see.

8. E. pleurocarpa is one of the most glaucous (almost mealy) of all West Australian species, and is mentioned only for that reason, for E. Campaspe is especially glaucous.

46. LXXXIV. Eucalyptus diptera, Andrews.

Description  206 
Notes supplementary to the description  206 
Range  206 
Affinities  207 

  ― 206 ―


LXXXIV. E. diptera, Andrews.

Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc., i, 42 (1904).

A slender tree of 10–20 feet. Branches terete, of a dark-red colour; branchlets angular.

Leaves on petioles of ½–1 inch, linear-lanceolate, falcate, 3 inches long and ¼–½ inch broad. The midrib and thickened margins prominent, the reticulate veins not conspicuous, the intramarginal one close to the edge. Oil glands copious.

Flowers small, sessile, generally in clusters of three.

Calyx-tube about 4 lines long and equally broad, the lower part flattened, and continuing to the top in the form of two wings.

Operculum fallen from all the specimens collected.

Stamens numerous, white, about 5 lines long, acutely inflected in the bud; anthers oblong, the cells back to back.

Ovary with conical summit; style about 3 lines long, thick, clavate.

Fruit not seen in advanced state.

This species belongs to the series Normales and the sub-series Subsessiles. It does not appear to have any very close ally. The shape of the calyx is very peculiar; the rim is almost circular when seen from above, though the two sharp keels just appear, but the base is closely compressed, being 2–3 lines long, and only ½ line broad where it is attached to the branch.

Mr. Andrews found this species in flower north of Esperance, in October, 1903.

Notes supplementary to the Description.

The stamens collected are very few and poor, the plant having just flowered off. Therefore one must be careful in describing them and making generalisations. The anthers open widely in parallel slits. There is a large gland filling up the back of the anther. The two cells appear to join together, almost covering over the back of the anther. The filament is attached to the base of the anther.


Mr. Andrews found it 40 or 50 miles north of Esperance, on the road to Norseman, and it has not been found since. Esperance is, of course, on the South coast of Western Australia, about 230 miles east of Albany.

  ― 207 ―


Mr. Andrews has observed that E. diptera does not appear to have any very close ally, and while it certainly has allies, we cannot say what they are at present. The figure on Plate 71 has been prepared from the whole of the material at his disposal. There are no juvenile leaves, no opercula, and the fruit is not perfectly ripe. But it can be seen that it is a very distinct species.

1. With E. incrassata, Labill., var. conglobata.

Buds in this variety are sometimes winged; we know nothing of the opercula of E. diptera. The fruit of E. diptera is very different, and the leaves are wider.

2. E. obcordata, Turcz., var. nutans, has winged buds and fruits, but it has also strap-shaped peduncles, and many other differences.

3. With E. Oldfieldii, F.v.M.

The nearly sessile-flowered twig of E. Oldfieldii var., figured on the right hand of the E. Oldfieldii plate of the “Eucalyptographia,” bears a superficial resemblance to E. diptera so far as we know it, but only superficial.

4. With E. Griffithsii, Maiden.

This also is a winged species, so far as the bud is concerned, but reference to Plate 71 shows that there is no further resemblance.

47. LXXXV. Eucalyptus Griffithsii, Maiden.

Description  208 
Range  208 
Affinities  209 

  ― 208 ―


LXXXV. E. Griffithsii, Maiden.

In Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. and Science Soc., iii, 177 (1911).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

“White Gum” magnus, foliis juvenibis angustis, glauco-viridibus concoloribus, venis obscuris præter costam mediam. Foliis maturis confertis angusto-lanceolatis, vel lanceolatis, 10 cm. longis, 2 cm. latis, petiolo 2–3 cm. longo eodem colore utraque pagina, margine calloso, venis lateralibus plumosis.

Gemmis apicibis planis costatis duabis costis fere in alis dilatatis, floribus ternis, antheris magnis longisque, a tergo glandula ovale. Fructibus magnis conoidis, valvulis aperte exsertis, margine plana.

A large White Gum, attaining a trunk diameter of 2 feet, timber reddish-brown in colour, and esteemed for fuel.

Juvenile foliage thick, narrow-lanceolate, petiolate, but not seen in the strictly opposite stage. Dull green, the same colour on both sides, oil dots fine and numerous, intramarginal vein not obvious and not far removed from the thickened margin. Venation, except the midrib, obscure.

Mature foliage thick, narrow lanceolate or lanceolate, 10 cm. long, 2 cm. broad, with a petiole of 2 cm. are common dimensions; glabrous or glaucous, equally green on both sides, intramarginal vein near edge, or forming the thickened margin, midrib distinct, lateral veins feather-like.

Buds flat-topped, corrugated, with two of the ribs broadened almost into wings, so as to give the buds the appearance of having broad pedicels. The common peduncles rounded or only slightly flattened. In threes.

Flowers—Stamens white, but bases of filaments pinkish. Anthers very large and long, with an oval-shaped gland at the back.

Fruits large, conoid, capsule white, valves distinctly exsert, rim flat. Corrugated, two of the ridges usually dilated almost to wings. Immature fruits with these wings forming flattened pedicels, and giving the fruits an almost sessile appearance. As maturity approaches, the fruits become more hemispherical at the base and the nearly round, comparatively slender pedicels become accentuated from the fruits. The common peduncle often 2 cm. long and nearly round.

In addition, it may be said that the timber, like that of so many of the Western Australian gold-fields trees, may be of a cigar-brown colour. The bark is somewhat ribbony, box-scaly at butt.

It is named in honour of my friend, John Moore Griffiths, of Melbourne, who has taken an active interest in my work for nearly thirty years.

E. Griffithsii is referred to in Part IV of my “Critical Revision” as a form of E. incrassata, with blunt opercula and large subconical fruits. Figured at 5a to 5d of Plate 15 of that Part.


It is confined to Western Australia.

The type comes from Kalgoorlie, where, as a large tree, it is now very scarce, because of the great demand for timber of every kind for the mines and for ordinary domestic purposes all over the Eastern Gold-fields.

  ― 209 ―

It also is found at Kurrawang, and at about 60 or 70 miles north of that township. It will probably be found over a fairly large area, but there is very little settlement over much of the country in question. I have collected it at the above places. Mr. R. Helms found it some years previously at Coolgardie.


1. With E. corrugata, Luehmann.

Its closest affinity appears to be E. corrugata, Luehmann, from which it is sufficiently separated by the more numerous and more accentuated corrugations of the buds and fruits and the smaller fruits of E. corrugata.

2. With E. incrassata, Labill.

It belongs to the E. incrassata series as regards anthers, and that affinity is borne out by examination of other morphological characters. It is, however, sharply separated from that species by the narrow juvenile foliage.

At the same time we want further juvenile foliage of this species in order to get thoroughly representative specimens.

3. With E. Campaspe, Moore.

The anthers seem very close to this species, even closer than to those of E. incrassata, but of course we are dealing with sparse material, and should be careful as regards generalisations.

48. LXXXVI. Eucalyptus grossa, F.v.M.

Description  210 
Synonyms  210 
Range  210 
Affinity  210 

  ― 210 ―


LXXXVI. E. grossa, F.v.M.

In Bentham's Flora Australiensis, iii, 232.

THE description is given at Part IV, p. 104, of this work, where I reduced it to a variety of E. incrassata, Labill. After further consideration, I think it desirable to consider it as a species, at all events until such time as we know more about a number of closely related congeners

It is figured on Plate 18, Part IV, from a cultivated specimen, but Professor Ewart having lent me a portion of the type which had disappeared from the Melbourne Herbarium for a period, I figure it on Plate 72.

We still want the juvenile foliage and ripe fruits from uncultivated specimens.


1. E. pachypoda, F.v.M.

For a description and other particulars, see Part IV, p. 104, of this work.

2. E. incrassata, Labill., var. grossa, Maiden (loc. cit.).


It has only been found in Western Australia. Bentham gives the locality, “Phillip River and its tributaries (Maxwell).”

Diels and Pritzel say of it:—

Frutex 1–3 m. alt., ramis late divaricatis, foliis læte viridibus, floribus ochroleucis præditus orientem versus montes Fraser's Range appropinquare videtur.

In distr. Coolgardie meridionali a Grasspatch septentrionem versus in fruticetis lutoso-arenosis fl. m. Nov. (D. 5,285). Engler's Jahrb., xxxv, 441 (1905).

This statement brings the range somewhat to the north-east of the former one. Grass Patch is between Esperance and Norseman.


With E. incrassata, Labill.

These species are certainly closely related, as already observed.

When we know more about other species belonging to the same series, we may return to the subject.

49. LXXXVII. Eucalyptus Pimpiniana, Maiden.

Description  211 
Range  211 
Affinities  212 

  ― 211 ―


LXXXVII. E. Pimpiniana, sp. nov.

Frutex 3–5 altus, “Mallee” vocata. Folia matura pallida, concoloria, præcrassa, lanceolata, ovato-lanceolata, ovata vel elliptica. Vena peripherica margini incrassata contigua vel congruens. Venæ non prominulæ. Folia circiter, 7·5 c.m. × 2·5 c.m., petiolus 2 cm. longus. Fructus pyrifo rmes vel sub-cylindrici, aliquando orificio lenissime constricti, aliquando lenissime distensi juxta orificium, circiter 1·5 cm. longi et 1 cm. lati.

Mature leaves pale coloured, dull on both sides, petiolate, very thick, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, ovate or elliptical, intramarginal vein identical with the slightly thickened margin, or but slightly removed from the edge. Venation, other than the midrib, inconspicuous, lateral veins feather-like, at about an angle of 45° with the midrib. Oil dots minute, and numerous, resembling black spots under the lens.

Average dimensions of the leaves, 7·5 by 2·5 cm.; and the length of petiole, 2 cm.

Anther broad, the openings wide, and with a large gland at the back.

Fruits pear-shaped to sub-cylindrical, sometimes slightly constricted at the orifice, and sometimes slightly distended one-third of the distance from the mouth; about 1·5 cm. long by 1 cm. broad. Three or four celled, the points of the valves deeply sunk below the orifice, rim well marked though not broad.

Several in an umbel, the rounded pedicel, which only slightly tapers from the fruit, varying in length from one-half to the whole length of the fruit.

The fruits pendulous and the common peduncle rounded (hardly flattened and never approaching strap-shape) exceedingly long (commonly 4 cm.).

The proposed specific name is from the native name of the plant.

The material of this species is so scanty that for a long time I hesitated to describe it as new. But it seems sufficiently distinct from what appears to be its nearest congener that I think it is in the interests of science to give it a separate name.

I do not like describing a species on such imperfect material, but I bear in mind Bentham's justifiable example with E. cæsia, and a description with a figure will, sooner or later, lead to the collection of a full suite of specimens.

The material consists of mature leaves, a ripe fruit (no seeds), together with a number of more or less ripe fruits in situ, and a few anthers. There are the remains of a number of anthers, but insects had destroyed most of them.


Only known from one locality at present. It was collected by Mr. Henry Deane, M.A., M. Inst. C.E., Consulting Engineer to the Commonwealth, while inspecting the trial survey of the Transcontinental Railway between Port Augusta, South Australia, and Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, in June, 1909.

Mr. Deane's notes are “Dwarf Mallee, 3 to 5 feet only. ‘Pimpin’ (native name), Sand-hills east of Ooldea, South Australia” (i.e., north of Fowler's Bay).

  ― 212 ―


1. With E. incrassata, Labill.

From the material available its closest affinity appears to be E. incrassata. This is borne out by the shape of the anther (the anthers of several species are, however, closely allied or identical).

The foliage seems different from that of E. incrassata, while the shape of the fruits and the long peduncles seem to show difference also.

2. With E. sepulcralis, F.v.M.

The fruits remind one somewhat of those of E. sepulcralis, a not very well known species. In that species, however, the fruit has a tendency to be ovate, and in E. Pimpiniana to be obovate. The anthers are different, as also the leaves, and the size of the tree.

50. LXXXVIII. Eucalyptus Woodwardi, Maiden.

Description  213 
Range  213 
Affinities  214 
Explanation of Plates  215 

  ― 213 ―


LXXXVIII. E. Woodwardi, Maiden.

In Journ. W.A. Nat. Hist. and Science Soc., iii, 42 (1910).

FOLLOWING is the original description:—

Arborea 13–15 m. (40–50 pedes) alta, cortice glabre base rimosiore, glaucissima.

Folia matura crassa rigidaque, late lanceolata, petiolata, circiter 10–15 cm. longa, 4–5 lata inconspicue venosa, venis lateralibus angulo circiter 45° approxime parallelis.

Alabastrum magnum, pedunculatum, subcostatum calyce urceolato, operculo hæmisphærico rostro obtuso. Antheræ cellis parallelis adnatis, glandula magno dorso.

Fructus urceolatus vel prope campanulatus, subcostatus circiter 15 mm. longus, similis in maxima latitudine, margo prominens, 5-valvulis, valvularum apicibus æquis cum orificio.

Videtur E. incrassatœ varietati angulsœ et E. cœsiœ forsan approximanda.

A tree of 40–50 feet, bark smooth, somewhat scaly at the butt, all parts very glaucous, almost mealy (except perhaps the oldest leaves). The foliage contains a good deal of a not very agreeably smelling oil.

Juvenile leaves not seen in the early stages. In an intermediate stage petiolate, ovate to ovate-acuminate, venation distinct though not very prominent, midrib channelled, lateral veins making approximately an angle of 45° with the midrib and roughly parallel, intramarginal vein at a considerable distance from the edge.

Mature leaves very thick, rigid, and glaucous, both sides of the leaf identical, nearly symmetrical, petiolate (petioles about 2 cm.), broadly lanceolate or ovate-acuminate, tapering to a not very fine point, commonly 10–15 cm. long by 4–5 broad, midrib distinct, usually thickened margin, venation fine and not readily made out, but very similar in position to that of the intermediate leaf.

Buds and flowers—Buds large, pedunculate, calyx and operculum slightly ribbed, calyx urceolate, the operculum hemispherical and tapering rather abruptly into a blunt beak. Flowers not seen expanded but anthers removed from three-quarter ripe buds, with parallel cells joined together for their whole length, and with a large gland at the back.

Fruits—On rounded common peduncles about 15 mm., the pedicels about 5 mm.; up to 7 in the umbel, each fruit sharply separated from the pedicel, urceolate or nearly bell-shaped, about 15 mm. long and the same in greatest width; rim well defined, 5-valved (in the specimens seen) with the tips of the valves flush with the orifice.

In honour of Bernard Henry Woodward, director of the Museum and Art Gallery, Perth, who, by the supply of photographs and specimens, and in other ways, has helped me in my monograph of this genus.


One small patch seen, 120 miles east of Kalgoorlie, Transcontinental Railway Survey. Collected by Henry Deane, M.A., M. Inst. C.E., Consulting Engineer, May, 1909.

Found also by R. Helms at Camp 63, 60 miles south of Victoria Spring, Western Australia, 27th September, 1891.

  ― 214 ―


Its closest affinity appears to be with:—

1. E. incrassata, Labill., var. angulosa, Benth.

But E. incrassata and its varieties have foliage glabrous and even shiny, except that the juvenile foliage is sometimes slightly glaucous. Its inflorescence is sessile on a broad flat peduncle, while the buds are more ribbed, the operculum more tapering; the fruits also are more cylindrical, usually more ribbed, and the valves are sunk.

The anthers are a good deal similar (and, indeed, to anthers of other species of the same group).

2. With E. cœsia, Benth.

This species was collected by Drummond, and is imperfectly known, only buds, fruits and leaves being available. We have Bentham's description, and until E. cœsia is again collected (so far as I know only Drummond has found it) we must be in doubt as to some of its relationships. But, as compared with E. Woodwardi, the leaves are very much smaller and less coarse, the fruits are much larger and constricted a little at the orifice, and not widened at the orifice (bell-shaped) like E. Woodwardi.

There is less ribbing of buds and fruits. Furthermore, in E. cœsia there is a very broad, smooth rim. The two species are probably closely related, but I think that they are quite distinct.

Its relations with some other very glaucous species may be indicated as follows:—

3. With E. miniata, A. Cunn.

This species has also the buds more or less ribbed. But they are sessile, and the fruits are larger and of a different shape; the leaves are thinner, and have the venation more marked than those of E. Woodwardi.

4. E. Campaspe, S. le M. Moore.

The foliage is much smaller, the buds are nearly sessile, rounded in shape (ovoid), the fruits nearly hemispherical, and the valves slightly exsert.

5. E. pleurocarpa, Schauer (E. tetragona, F.v.M.).

The foliage of this and E. Woodwardi are often a good deal similar, and so they might be confused in the bush. The branchlets and buds are a good deal more angular, and the calyx is toothed, the fruit is larger and more cylindrical. E. pleurocarpa belongs to the Section Eudesmiæ, and the anthers are different.

6. E. pruinosa, Schauer.

It has some general resemblance to the above species in its glaucousness and (sometimes) size of fruit, but the two species differ sharply in anthers and foliage (the leaves of E. pruinosa are sessile).

  ― 215 ―


I am indebted to Dr. L. Diels for the following note:—

As suggested by your remark on p. 117, Part IV, I avail myself of the opportunity to set forth my views about the locality “Iles Stériles” recorded by Baudin's Expedition. Having gone through several of the old original books, I am satisfied (with you) that this name has never been used in published literature. At the same time, there is no doubt to me that it is a translation of the Dutch “Dorre Eylandt” (barren island), and means, in a broader sense, those three islands called nowadays Dirk Hartog Island, Dorre Island, and especially Bernier Island, in Shark's Bay. These islands, being discovered by Dirk Hartog in 1616, were more thoroughly explored, for the first time, by the expedition of Baudin. They are fully described in Perron's and L. de Freycinet's report of this voyage (“Voyage de decouvertes aux Terres Australes,” Paris). There is a quite detailed paragraph on their vegetation in this book. It is safe to suppose that several species have been collected on Bernier Island. I think the species labelled “Iles Stériles” came from there; for all of them we are aware of belong to the flora of sandy dunes on limestone formation, just as it is met with on these islands; for instance, Eucalyptus fœcunda, which was collected again near Shark's Bay by Milne (v. p. 115 of your Revision); further Beyeria cyanescens, Bth. (Flor. Aust vi, 66), this plant has been collected again or Dirk Hartog's Island by Naumann (in Herb. Berlin); and, even more deciding, Scholtzia leptantha, Benth. We have this plant from “Iles Stériles” in Herb. Berlin, communicated by the Paris Museum, as to herb. R. Brown (vide Bth. F. Aust., iii, 70). Now the same species was collected near Shark's Bay by Milne, on Dirk Hartog's Island by Naumann, on dunes near Carnarvon by myself. The whole evidence leads me to the conclusion that “Iles Stériles” are those (really exceedingly barren) islands in Shark's Bay. The name, then, is an extension of the old Dutch “Dorre Eylandt,” which meant only one of them. That this informal, rather provisional naming has been retained on the labels, while the official report has only the valid names (Ile Dirk Hartog, Ile Dorre, Ile de Bernier), is not surprising when one considers how very little care was taken about correct labelling by the old botanists.

Explanation of Plates (69–72).

Plate 69.

Plate 69: EUCALYPTUS OLOEOSA, F.v.M. Var. Flocktoni, Maiden (1-4) E. LE SOUEFII, Maiden (5-7). E. CLELANDI, Maiden (8). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. oleosa, F.v.M., var. Flocktoni, Maiden.

  • 1a, 1b. Mature leaves; 1c, buds; 1d, 1e, fruits of the type. Desmond, near Ravensthorpe, Western Australia. (J.H.M.)
  • 2a. Mature leaf; 2b, bud and flowers; 2c, anthers; 2d, fruits from co-type. Esperance, Western Australia. (L. L. Cowen.)
  • 3a. Mature leaf; 3b, fruits much less corrugated than those of the type. Murchison River, Western Australia. (Oldfield.)
  • 4a. Fruit, smaller in size and less corrugated; 4b, anther. Cowcowing, Western Australia. (Max Koch.) Figures 3 and 4 are connectimg links between E. oleosa and var. Flocktoni, and form part of the evidence that the latter form, dissimilar as it looks at first sight, cannot be given specific rank.

E. Souefii, n. sp.

  • 5a. Juvenile leaf; 5b, intermediate leaf; 5c, mature leaf. Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. (J.H.M.)
  • 6a, 6b. Buds; 6c, 6d, fruits. Nearly 70 miles north of Kurrawang, Western Australi (J.H.M.)
  • 7. Anther, from a tree near Kurrawang. (J.H.M.)

E. Clelandi, n. sp.

  • 8a. Juvenile leaf; 8b, intermediate leaf; 8c, mature leaf; 8d, buds c, fruits of the type. Goongarrie, Western Australia. (J.H.M.)

  ― 216 ―

Plate 70.

Plate 70: E. DECURVA, F.v.M. (1-2). E. DORATOXYLON, F.v.M. (3-5). E. CORRUGATA, Leuhmann (6-7). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. decurva, F.v.M.

  • 1a. Juvenile leaves; 1b, mature leaf; 1c, fruits. Kalgan Plains, Western Australia. (J.H.M.)
  • 2a. Mature leaf; 2b, buds; 2c, flowers; 2d, anthers; 2e, fruits. King George's Sound, Western Australia. (Diels' No. 3420).

E. doratoxylon, F.v.M.

  • 3. Fragment of type. Drawn from a specimen of Drummond's No. 69 “Swan River, 1845,” in the herbarium of the University of Cambridge.
  • 4a. Juvenile leaves; 4b, buds; 4c, anther; 4d, fruits. Red Gum Pass, Stirling Range, Western Australia. (A. Morrison.)
  • 5. Flowering twig. King George's Sound, Western Australia. (Collector of Mueller, name not given.)

E. corrugata, Luehmann.

  • 6a. Mature leaf; 6b, bud; 6c, fruit, from the type in National Herbarium, Melbourne. Golden Valley, 200 miles east of Perth, Western Australia. (Sayer.)
  • 7a. Mature leaf; 7b, buds; 7c, immature anthers taken from an unopened bud; leaf and fruits. Southern Cross, Western Australia. (J.H.M.)

Plate 71.

Plate 71: E. STRICKLANDI, Maiden (1). E. CAMPASPE, S. Le M. Moore (2-4). E. DIPTERA, Andrews (5). E. GRIFFITHSII, Maiden (6). [See also Fig. 5 of Plate 15.] Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. Stricklandi, sp. nov.

  • 1a. Mature leaf; 1b, buds and flowers; 1c, anthers; 1d, fruits, Hampton Plains Estate, Coolgardie, Western Australia. (E. Lidgey.) Type.

E. Campaspe, S. le M. Moore.

  • 2a. Mature leaf; 2b, buds and flower; 2c, anthers. Fragment of the type, given to me by Mr. Moore.
  • 3a. Twig, with buds and flower; 3b, anther; 3c, fruits. Coolgardie, Western Australia. (L. C. Webster.)
  • 4a. Twig, with buds and flowers; 4b, anthers. Forty miles from Fraser's Range, 5th November, 1891 Elder Exploring Expedition. (R. Helms.)

E. diptera, Andrews.

  • 5a. Flowering twig; 5b, anther; 5c, fruit, showing the two wings. All drawn from the type in the possession of Mr. Andrews. North of Esperance, Western Australia. (C. R. P. Andrews.)

E. Griffithsii, Maiden.

(Figs. 5a, b, c, d, of Plate 15 also belong to this species, and the figures of Plate 71 are supplementary).

  • 6a. Intermediate leaf. Oil glands very distinct, dull surface; 6b, 6c, mature leaves, glaucous; 6d, buds, showing wings; 6e, anthers. Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. (J.H.M.) Drawn from the type.

Plate 72.

Plate 72: E. GROSSA, F.v.M. (1). [See also Fig. 2 of Plate 18]. E. PIMPINIANA, Maiden (2). E. WOODWARDI, Maiden (3). Lithograph by Margaret Flockton.

E. grossa, F.v.M.

  • 1a. Flowering twig; 1b, anthers. Drawn from the type in the National Herbarium, Melbourne. Phillip River, near Mount Desmond, Western Australia. (Maxwell.)
  • Compare 2a, b, c of Plate 18.

E. Pimpiniana, Maiden.

  • 2a. Twig, bearing fruits; 2b, anthers. Sand hills, east of Ooldea, South Australia. Transcontinental Railway Survey (Henry Deane). Type.

E. Woodwardi, Maiden.

  • 3a. Intermediate leaf; 3b, mature leaf; 3c, buds; 3d, anthers; 3e, fruits. 120 miles east of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Transcontinental Railway Survey (Henry Deane). Type.
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